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一些豆科植物根瘤图片,看看豆科植物的生物固氮作用有多强大

已有 14285 次阅读 2013-5-29 09:57 |个人分类:结瘤豆科植物|系统分类:图片百科

Root nodule of some legumes.

蚕豆(Vicia faba)的根瘤(2014年云南,Li Y, Guo HJ, Zhang JJ, Xiong HY拍摄)

黄花苜蓿

野豌豆(Vicia sepium)

野外条件下豌豆(Pisum sativum)的根瘤

实验室条件下豌豆的根瘤

20180820_112103.jpg

豌豆的根瘤,来自2018年欧洲固氮大会的墙报(陈文峰摄)。作者:Tatiana A. Serova等, 单位:All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology.

蚕豆(Vicia faba)

田菁( Sesbania cannabina)的根瘤


田菁( Sesbania cannabina)的根瘤

田菁( Sesbania cannabina)植物

鹰嘴豆(chickpea, Cicer arietinum)的根瘤

蚕豆(Vicia faba)的根瘤

左:不结瘤的鹰嘴豆;中:恢复结瘤的鹰嘴豆;右:正常结瘤的鹰嘴豆 (chickpea, Cicer arietinum),示根系大量的根瘤。

1-s2.0-S0944501313001651-gr6.jpg

A. 不接种根瘤菌的鹰嘴豆对照

B. 接种中慢生根瘤菌的鹰嘴豆

C. 鹰嘴豆的根瘤

Chickpea plants non-inoculated (no nitrogen provided) (A) and inoculated with mesorhizobia (B) in the growth chamber; chickpea root nodules (C). From: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944501313001651#fig0030

Marta Laranjo, Ana Alexandre, Solange Oliveira, Legume growth-promoting rhizobia: An overview on the Mesorhizobium genus, Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 1, 2014, Pages 2-17, ISSN 0944-5013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2013.09.012. 

实验室内培养的Cicer canariense及其结瘤情况

野外生长的野生的Cicer canariense.

Cicer canariense附近有Lotus campylocladus的生长和分布



补骨脂的根瘤(球状的定型根瘤)

Detailed photographic illustrations of different nodule structures from field collected legume species (A) Determinate nodules of Psoralea suaveolens (Psoraleeae) (B) Indigoferoid nodules of Indigofera incana (Indigofereae) (C) Indeterminate unbranched nodules of Podalyria sericea (Podalyrieae). http://femsec.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/2/1.12.long


紫云英(Astragalus sinicus)根瘤(Zheng WT摄)


紫云英(Astragalus sinicus)根瘤(Yang GP摄)

根瘤的生物量这么大,对当季作物本身及对后茬作物提供的营养太多了!鹰嘴豆非常适合与禾本科作物轮作!只是鹰嘴豆在国内的地区适应性太窄,多种植在新疆等西北干旱地区,如能引种到其它省市,则最好不过了。能制造多少氮肥,减少多少氮肥的投入啊!

紫云英也是很好的绿肥。而蚕豆除固氮能力强,也是经济作物!


以上均为花生的根瘤(nodules of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea))

上面两个图中,上面的图为大豆(soybean, Glycine max)的根瘤,下面的鹰嘴豆(chickpea, Cicer arietinum)的根瘤。




上图:超级结瘤的大豆。来自:http://www.cilr.uq.edu.au/soybean-nodulation-control



上面一组图中,上面的为百脉根(birdsfoot, Lotus corniculatus)的根瘤,下面为白三叶草(white clover, Trifolium repens)的根瘤


上面一组图中,上面一图为红豆草(sainfoin, Onobrychis viciifolia)的根瘤,下面一图为瓜尔豆[guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)]的根瘤


上面一组图中,上面的为三叶草的有效根瘤(大,红色)和无效根瘤(小,白色);下面的为小冠花的根瘤


上图为大豆(Glycine max, soybean)的根瘤,示根瘤切面,红色的为有效根瘤,下面白色的、小的为无效根瘤。


大豆接种根瘤菌与否的生长比较,未接菌的标记为check,接菌的标记为SoyRhizo(来自:http://www.seedquest.com/solutions.php?type=solution&id_article=35547  Soybean trial with SoyRhizo inoculant showing enhanced nodulation and active nitrogen fixation in root nodules (pink nodule interior).示根瘤的切面为红色)。

槐属的Sophora formosa的根瘤(来自:http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bnf/Rhizobia_Root_infection.asp  )。Sophora formosa在美国Phoenix, Arizona有分布(http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/151387/  )。Sophora formosa根瘤为棒状或分支状。Sophora formosa又不称为Gila sophora, 或Arizona necklacepod.又有建议将Sophora formosa命名为Sophora arizonica(http://art-botanical.org/Plants/Sop_for.html  或http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26960  )。



以上的标本为Sophora formosa。从中可以看出,最初叫S. formosa,后来改叫S. arizonicahttp://160.111.248.28/content/2012/01/31/03/59849_orig.jpg  )


除了豆科外,也有一些植物可以与放线菌建立共生固氮关系。

以下是桤木(alder tree)的根瘤,根瘤内是放线菌:


上图:Symbiotic N-fixing actinorhizal nodules on the root of an alder tree.

上图来自Science上的综述:Ancestral alliances: Plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria.

F. M. Martin et al., Science 356, eaad4501 (2017). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad4501.



以上为绒毛槐(Sophora tomentosa 的根瘤

(A) Plant appearance after being cultivated for 6 months; (B) nodules with indeterminate growth with suberized surface occurring in lateral roots base (black arrow) or along them (blue arrow). (C) Longitudinal section of nodules with one (right) or two (left) apical meristems (m), presenting senescent regions (s), fixation (f), infection and differentiation zones (i). (D–E) Roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal with intra radicular spores (e), vesicles (v) and fungal hyphae (h).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1517838216307183?via%3Dihub#fig0005


Sophora flavescens.jpg

苦参(Sophora flavescens)的根瘤

Nodule of Sophora flavescens



更多的根瘤照片,也可参见这里:

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/bnf/Rhizobia_Root_infection.asp

其中也有一些根瘤菌的照片。

(Rhizobia, Root  Infection and Nodule Development, These photographs show rhizobia and bradyrhizobia in the free living   state, the infection and nodule development process, developed root nodules and nodule contents.)



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