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[转载]转载:科学时报报道的Science论文:我们对氮循环做了什么

已有 4535 次阅读 2010-10-11 21:08 |个人分类:微生物趣闻|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:氮循环| 氮循环 |文章来源:转载

我们对地球的氮循环做了些什么?
 
研究人员说,现代氮循环是在大约27亿年之前出现的,当时是地球上刚刚出现微生物的时候,但人类的影响已经在上个世纪中急剧地改变了这些重要过程的演进。
 
如今,在一篇Review文章中,Donald Canfield及其同事对我们星球的从诞生一直到当代的氮循环进行了追踪。他们的分析将有助于披露人类对氮循环的变化究竟扮演了什么角色。
 
研究人员提出,人类的活动可能对自地球在数十亿年前第一次出现微生物以来的氮循环带来了最大的影响。他们说,在1960~2000年期间,世界各地所使用的氮肥增加了800%,而来自肥料的固定氮随后又令水中生物窒息并向大气中注入了大量的氧化亚氮,这是一种强力的温室气体。
 
尽管微生物可能在将来有助于氮循环平衡的某种恢复,但这些研究人员说,地球的氮循环已经因为人类的农业和工业活动而永久性地改变了。他们推荐了几种可在世界各地减少氮使用的新的可持续性的方法。
Science 8 October 2010: Vol. 330. no. 6001, pp. 192 - 196. DOI: 10.1126/science.1186120

Review

The Evolution and Future of Earth’s Nitrogen Cycle

Donald E. Canfield,1,* Alexander N. Glazer,2 Paul G. Falkowski3

 

Atmospheric reactions and slow geological processes controlled Earth’s earliest nitrogen cycle, and by ~2.7 billion years ago, a linked suite of microbial processes evolved to form the modern nitrogen cycle with robust natural feedbacks and controls. Over the past century, however, the development of new agricultural practices to satisfy a growing global demand for food has drastically disrupted the nitrogen cycle. This has led to extensive eutrophication of fresh waters and coastal zones as well as increased inventories of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Microbial processes will ultimately restore balance to the nitrogen cycle, but the damage done by humans to the nitrogen economy of the planet will persist for decades, possibly centuries, if active intervention and careful management strategies are not initiated.
1 Institute of Biology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M, Denmark.
2 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
3 Institute of Marine and Coastal Studies and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: dec@biology.sdu.dk

 



Fig. 4 Rates of nitrogen flux in the modern nitrogen cycle depend on the efficiency of the transformations between reservoirs. Arrow size reflects relative size of the flux. The dark brown arrows represent anthropogenic inputs (25, 45, 52, 68).

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