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荷兰小男孩手指堵洞止洪水的著名故事,一般认为由美国作家讲述,其实源自法国人的虚构童话

已有 2146 次阅读 2019-11-22 20:41 |个人分类:水利水资源|系统分类:海外观察

    ——用手指堵洪水的所谓方法,其实荷兰人民不知道,而是美国作家源引法国人编写的童话

    ——所谓家喻户晓的荷兰小英雄 《堵水坝的男孩》,其实荷兰人民未曾听说,仅是美国输出

  网络上有消息称:The Little Hero of Holland是一个在荷兰家喻户晓的小英雄的故事:乡村小男孩彼得的爷爷是修建堤坝倡导人,爸爸管水闸, 叔叔负责堤坝巡视,他从小比别人明白守护堤坝安全的重要。

  一篇期刊论文提到:“在荷兰,甚至连小孩也知道用手指去堵住堤防上的渗水孔,等待大人的到来,这是荷兰人世世代代为之骄傲的传统。”而实际上,荷兰家长与孩子并不知道、也不会使用这个方法。

  从科学性而言,荷兰小男孩手指堵洞止洪水的著名故事是明显不成立的。但由于其趣味性与感人性,在全球广泛传扬。

  而且,事实上,用手指堵洪水的所谓方法,其实荷兰人民不知道,荷兰小孩子更不知道。最新研究论文表明,这是美国作家源引法国人编写的童话。

  一篇网络文章煞有介事地说:“Hans Brinker is known as the boy who stuck his finger in the dike when a flood threatened, and thus kept the water back. This is a basic misunderstanding: this is the legend described in the book, but in reality it is about Peter, the lockkeeper's son.”(不是Hans Brinker,堵洞者是真实的Peter)(http://lidy.obbyspage.id.au/hansbrinker.html)

  2017年一篇报道的标题是“为什么荷兰小孩子永远也不会把手指放在堤坝上(隐指用手去堵洞)?”(Why the Little Dutch Boy Never Put his Finger in the Dike,https://www.dutchgenealogy.nl/why-the-little-dutch-boy-never-put-his-finger-in-the-dike/)。

  不过,荷兰人进口了这个童话故事之后,也觉得十分有趣,同时为了满足与迎合美国游客猎奇的心理,特意在荷兰的旅游地区建造了塑像。

  发表于Water History期刊的一篇学术研究论文《The story of the Dutch boy who prevented a flooding disaster: origin and variations on the theme》详尽地分析了法国作者虚构的童话与美国作者的转述及在全球广泛的翻译与传播(https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12685-019-00237-0)。论文提到,全球已有35种语言讲述或提及了这个故事。

  因为这个故事,也在中国流传,因此介绍一些更真实的编造与传播过程是有一些意义的。

附1:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12685-019-00237-0

The story of the Dutch boy who prevented a flooding disaster: origin and variations on the theme

      Bart Schultz 刊登于Water History,December 2019, Volume 11, Issue 3–4 

  The tale of the boy who is said to have prevented a flooding by putting his finger in a hole of the (Spaarndammer) dike in the Netherlands, is well known all over the world. However, little is known about the origin of the story or about the wide range of variations that have been published and are still being published. This paper argues that the French author of children tales Rébecca Eugénie Rodrigues-Henriques (1796–1852) published the first version of the story under the pseudonym Eugénie Foa in French, with the title Le petit éclusier, “the little sluicer”. However, the story has been made famous by the American author Mary (Elisabeth) Mapes Dodge, who included the tale in her book Hans Brinker, or The silver skates. A story of life in Holland. The paper shows as well that this remarkable tale has found its way into a huge amount of books and other forms of information transfer in at least thirty-five languages. In more or less chronological order, this history will be described, focusing on how and in what variations the story has arisen, been retold and what significance we can assign to all the story variants.

附2:http://www.cqvip.com/QK/96686X/19986/3150192.html

                    荷兰的洪水与防御

                   《治淮》1998年 第6期 

  素有“低洼之国”之称的荷兰有很大一部分国土是由“围海造田”而成的圩田,其多于25%的国土面积位于平均海水面以下,而且一旦遇到高潮位或洪水,有近一半的国土将受到淹没的威胁,所以洪水的防御对荷兰来说自古以来就是一件十分重要的事情。荷兰的历史与文化以及荷兰的一切都与水息息相关,紧密相连,尤其是荷兰的防洪更是众人皆知,共同参与的工作。在荷兰,甚至连小孩也知道用手指去堵住堤防上的渗水孔,等待大人的到来,这是荷兰人世世代代为之骄傲的传统。在这一传统与背景下,荷兰也造就了一大批世界级的水利专家与学者,为世界的水利科学和技术的发展作……

附3:http://m.sohu.com/a/347182564_450156/

           【英语美文】勇敢的心,家喻户晓的荷兰小英雄《堵水坝的男孩》

  The Little Hero of Holland是一个在荷兰家喻户晓的小英雄的故事:乡村小男孩彼得的爷爷是修建堤坝倡导人,爸爸管水闸, 叔叔负责堤坝巡视,他从小比别人明白守护堤坝安全的重要。有天他意外发现堤坝处有小洞渗出海水,为防止溃堤,他想出一个办法,一直奋战到天亮……

附4:https://www.dutchgenealogy.nl/why-the-little-dutch-boy-never-put-his-finger-in-the-dike/

  Why the Little Dutch Boy Never Put his Finger in the Dike

               30 JUNE 2017 BY YVETTE HOITINK

Hans Brinker tying his sister’s skates. Credits: Theophile Schuler, Wikimedia Commons (public domain)

He is probably the most famous Dutch boy that never lived. The Little Dutch boy who saved the day by putting his finger in a dike.

The book in which he appeared, Hans Brinker; or, the Silver Skates: A Story of Life in Holland, featured several stories. The story about the Little Dutch Boy told how he saved Haarlem from flooding by putting his finger in the dike. Another story about Hans Brinker was about a boy who wanted to win silver skates. Some people think Hans Brinker was the Little Dutch Boy, but these are two separate stories.

The story about Hans Brinker and the Little Dutch Boy who put his finger in the dike were created by American author Mary Mapes Dodge and not based on any actual Dutch folk heros. Since the book’s publication in 1865, the Little Dutch Boy has become part of American pop culture even though most Dutch people have never heard about him.

But there’s another twist to the story. Not even the Little Dutch Boy could have saved the town.

You see, when a dike is about to break, a finger just does not cut it. Dikes don’t typically leak—they weaken until whole sections are washed away. No finger will help when that happens.

So what is a hero supposed to do?

You don’t use a finger, you use a boat.

附5:https://www.newcoldwar.org/the-little-dutch-boy-and-his-finger-in-the-dyke-story-make-that-the-buk-missile-story/


附6:https://www.sohu.com/a/304927848_254472

  http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_15000d5750102x06v.html

《全球风暴》的“荷兰男孩”真实故事,来源小说集

                 一根指头拯救半个荷兰

                     唐启寿

  荷兰是个很奇怪的国家,有一半以上国土低于海平面。如果没有堤坝,海水就会淹没这个国家。

  因此堤坝就成了荷兰人心中的安全防线。几个世纪以来,荷兰人坚持不懈地维护着堤坝,任何细小的缝隙都要马上堵住,荷兰的每个男孩都知道这一点。威廉姆的爷爷是修建堤坝的倡导人,爸爸是管水闸的, 叔叔负责堤坝巡视,所以威廉姆比别的男孩更懂这件事。

附7:https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/2115936343923479307.html

美杜莎2moR 推荐于2017-10-04

  这个是假的,这是一个美国知名童书作家道奇夫人(Mary Mapes Dodge)的经典之作《银冰鞋》里的一则故事。1865年,《银冰鞋》出版後非常畅销,「堵水坝的男孩」的故事因而世界知名。是虚构的故事,故事内容大概是:有个乡下男孩经过水坝时,发现水坝有小洞渗出海水,他为了防止溃堤以手指堵住洞口,一直奋战到天亮,才被早起的农夫发现,最後拯救了全镇。

附8:https://www.zhihu.com/question/21727289

                 真的可以用手指堵住堤坝小孔吗?

  历史上的荷兰小男孩传说:据说以前荷兰有个小男孩,路过一座堤坝,看到堤坝上有个小孔,他知道万一溃坝,海水就会涌进来,造成大灾难。于是,小男孩用手指塞入小孔,一动不动,直到大人发现他。这个勇敢而有毅力的小男孩的故事流传甚广。你可以在大陆出版的《美德书》中读到详细的故事。

               1 个回答(skml NL) 2 人赞同了该回答

  可以啊 堤坝侧面的孔洞的压力和孔洞的面积成正比吧,指头那么大小的洞人力确实可以堵上,并且理想的情况手指插进洞里,堤坝石头材质的摩擦力正好会卡紧手指,插进足够深就有足够的力量,但是这个小洞不堵住,进入的水流会持续的冲刷掉洞口周围的堤坝材质,洞口会越来越大,大到一定口径,单人的力量就很难再堵住了。

附9:http://www.tingroom.com/plus/view.php?aid=430242

英国语文第二册 第44期:勇敢的荷兰小孩

        LESSON 44 The brave little hollander 第四十四课 勇敢的荷兰小孩

  In some parts of Holland1 the land lies so low, that the people have to build great walls of sand and earth, to keep out the sea.  荷兰的某些地区海拔很低,所以当地居民必须筑高大的沙土墙来抵挡海浪。

  These walls are called dykes2. 这些墙就叫做水利堤防。

  Sometimes the waves break down these walls, and then the sea rushes in through the breach3, and spreads over the land. 有时候海浪会把墙催倒,然后海水肆虐,淹没土地。

  Houses and trees, cattle4 and sheep, have thus been washed away, and many people drowned. 房屋树木,牛群羊群都被冲走,很多居民溺亡。 

  Once, when a little boy was going home in the evening, he saw a hole in one of the dykes, through which the water was trickling5. 有一次,一个小男孩在晚上回家时看见了防浪堤上的一个洞,海水正顺着洞流入。

  His father had often told him that when this happened, unless the water was stopped it would soon make the hole so big that the sea would flow over the land. 他的父亲曾告诉他,如果遇到这种情况,除非水不再流入,否则这个小洞会越来越大,直到海水淹没土地。

  At first, he thought he would run home and tell his father. But then he said to himself,  他的第一反应就是想跑回家告诉父亲。但是他随后自言自语道:

  "It may be dark before father can come, and we shall not be able to find the hole again.  “等把爸爸找来天已经黑了,到时候就找不到洞口了。

  Or it may get so large that it will be too late to stop it. I must stay now, and do the best I can alone." 又或者到时候这个洞已经来不及堵上了。我要留下来,尽力堵住这个洞。”

  The brave little boy sat down, and put his hand in the hole, to keep back the water.  这个勇敢的小男孩坐下来,用手堵住洞口,不让水流入。

  There he stayed, hour after hour, in the cold and the dark, all through the night! 一个又一个小时过去了,他在那度过了一整个寒冷的黑夜。

  In the morning, a man came past and saw him. He could not think what the boy was doing there. So he called out to him,— 早晨有个人经过,发现了他。这个人不明白小男孩在干嘛。所以他向小男孩喊道,——

  "What are you doing there, my boy?" “孩子,你在那里做什么?”

  "There is a hole in the dyke," said the boy, "and I am keeping back the water." “堤上有个洞,”小男孩答道,“我正用手堵住呢。”

  Poor little boy! he was so cold and tired that he could scarcely6 speak. 可怜的小男孩!又冷又累的他几乎说不出话来了。

  The man came quickly and set him free.  很快,这个人走了过来,让小男孩离开。

  He got the hole closed up, and thus the land was saved,—thanks to the brave little Hollander! 他堵上了洞口,挽救了这片土地——多亏了这个勇敢的小男孩!



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