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泰森多边形之泰森是美国气象学家,中国有称之为荷兰气象、气候学家可能是一个“教科书级”的误传

已有 1557 次阅读 2019-9-1 14:30 |个人分类:水文科学|系统分类:科普集锦

             ——调查发现,这可能是一个“教科书级”的差错

                                        ——超星图书馆检索,多本教材称泰森为荷兰气象或气候学者

                                             ——泰森“独立发现”佐证:原文含糊及示意图欠妥

                                        

  泰森多边形的故事,主要在博文《泰森多边形的故事——“火星撞地球”节目“泰森多边形”升级版中的球面多边形已不能称作泰森多边形》(http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=350729&do=blog&id=1196163)之中讲述。不过,搜索发现,出自中国学者、覆盖不同领域(不限于水文、气候)的多篇英文论文中,均将泰森称为荷兰气候学家或气象学家。博文《泰森多边形的故事》指出,百度百科“泰森多边形”条目的编写者们已经纠正了错误。

  然而,不少中国学者的英文论文中仍出现错误的说法、而且很可能还会以讹传讹,在更多的文章中使用。

  我用中国知网在全文搜索“荷兰气象学家A.H.Thiessen”,包括诸多博硕士论文在内,达446篇文章(以下所称“文章”,均包括知网的博硕士论文);“荷兰气候学家A.H.Thiessen”检索,有262篇文章。用“荷兰气候学家泰森”检索,有288篇文章,用“荷兰气象学家泰森”检索,有450篇文章;用“荷兰气象学家Thiessen”检索,有2,608篇文章,用“荷兰气候学家Thiessen”检索,有1,216篇。

  从检索结果看,泰森的多边形在中国一直大热。从另外一方面,也说明以讹传讹太厉害。这个源头可能是中文“教科书级”的,否则不会有如此多的“荷兰”!因为找不到源头或不知用什么途径纠正,这个错误想必还会持续下去。  

  不过,聊以自慰的,亦有不少正确的。用“美国气象学家泰森”检索,有800篇文章;用“美国气候学家泰森”检索,有420篇文章;。用“美国气象学家A.H.Thiessen”检索全文,有1098篇文章;用“美国气候学家A.H.Thiessen”检索,有480篇文章,用“美国气候学家Thiessen”检索,有5346篇论文;用“美国气象学家Thiessen”检索,有14,755篇文章。

  除上述中国知网检索的中文文章看,网页搜见的英文论文中,有不少中国作者的论文,都把泰森称作荷兰气象学家或气候学家。

  因为大量正式出版的文章大面积、长时间地把泰森称作荷兰气象学家或气候学家,所以我推测,这种错误出自中国比较权威的著作、教材等,错误是“教科书级”的。

  目前还想顺便查证一下为什么把Thiessen说成荷兰气候学家。或许他是荷兰移民的后代?网上可搜的消息都没有涉及Thiessen的父辈。网上的简短介绍中,他的一生经历都在美国度过,似乎跟荷兰没有瓜葛。

  根据附3的信息,Thiessen姓氏源自德国。

  从当前搜索看,把泰森视为荷兰气象、气候学家,仅见于中国作者。英语世界中,有搞错泰森去世时间的,有多则非中国作者的学术介绍中,把泰森的去世年份误作1931年。

      关于泰森的独立发现问题,我在博文《泰森多边形的故事——“火星撞地球”节目“泰森多边形”升级版中的球面多边形已不能称作泰森多边形》中说过:“泰森的原文《Precipitation Averages for Large Areas》(1911)既简短、又有点含糊,满打满算也不到1页半纸。而且,没有任何一篇参考文献。他原文的思想可能难以引起别人注意。可是,机会来了,美国水文学之父、水文大咖霍顿不久即发现了泰森价值,并作了精细阐述与讲解。他在这篇同样未附无参考文献的文章中断言,这个多边形是泰森的独立发现。看来,霍顿已经知道,泰森多边形其实已不新鲜,此前已以不同的称呼出现于其他学科。迄今一直存在的疑点是,霍顿的阐发文章仅仅迟于泰森论文6年,泰森真的不知道这个多边形已被发现,并在其他领域有两个不同的名称了?霍顿是怎么看出泰森是独立发现的?注意:泰森与霍顿先后的文章都无任何其他参考文献。是否他们是熟人,泰森给他讲过独立发现的故事?”

       对于泰森与霍顿是否彼此了解,这可能是肯定的,毕竟同在美国,生活时代与研究领域都相近,泰森是发表《Precipitation Averages for Large Areas》的期刊《MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW》的时任及当期区域编辑,在气象、水文杂志很少的当日,霍顿肯定是知道泰森的。泰森作为编辑,对水利界学术名人霍顿也应当是知道的。对于泰森的“独立发现”问题,我想就泰森论文本身谈一下看法。如果泰森事先已读过在他之前发表的.沃罗诺伊图(Voronoi diagram)或类似的文字,可以作为借鉴,他的《Precipitation Averages for Large Areas》就不太可能那样简短而含糊、唯一的示意图可能还是有差错的(欲知详情的,请读泰森的原文及本人博文《泰森多边形的故事——“火星撞地球”节目“泰森多边形”升级版中的球面多边形已不能称作泰森多边形》中有关内容。

       用超星图书馆全文搜索,含“荷兰气象学家泰森、荷兰气象学家A·H·Thiessen、荷兰气候学家Thiessen”表述的中文专业书籍有12本,其中多为教材。含“荷兰气候学家泰森、荷兰气候学家A·H·Thiessen、荷兰气候学家Thiessen””表述的中文专业书籍有11本,其中多为教材。

      据介绍,在生物学等领域,Voronoi图也被称为 Winger-Seitz 单元(或区域)或Blum变换。

附1:https://howlingpixel.com/i-en/Alfred_H._Thiessen

                 Alfred H. Thiessen

Alfred H. Thiessen (April 8, 1872 – June 7, 1956) was an American meteorologist after whom Thiessen polygons are named.

Alfred H. Thiessen was born in TroyNew York. He earned a bachelor of science degree from Cornell University in 1898. His service in the Weather Bureau began at Pittsburgh as observer on July 1, 1898. He subsequently was assigned to Helena, Washington, Point Reyes and Manteo as assistant, and to Mount Weather, Raleigh, Indianapolis, Salt Lake City, Portland, Baltimore, and Denver as official in charge. He resigned from the Weather Bureau on December 11, 1920, to accept a commission as Captain in the Regular Army. He left active service, as a major, and was reappointed at the Central Office of the Weather Bureau on March 17, 1941. He retired on April 30, 1942.

His best known work (1911) dealt with the description of weather prediction with a geometric method for dividing land areas, that although known from Dirichlet Tessellation (1850) and the Voronoi Diagram (1908), apparently had never been used in meteorology for interpolation of measurements. The synonyms Thiessen polygons or Thiessen method have become established for this application.

Thiessen polygons have also been used to estimate the areas of influence of Mayan city-states.

Alfred H. Thiessen

BornApril 8, 1872

TroyNew York

DiedJune 7, 1956 (aged 84)

ArlingtonVirginia

Scientific career
FieldsMeteorology
InstitutionsWeather Bureau

附2:https://www.history.noaa.gov/nwsbios/nwsbios_page72.html(出自美国NOAA,属于官方性质的简介)

Major Alfred H. Thiessen, who was reappointed at the Central Office on March 17, 1941, was retired at the termination of April 30, 1942. Major Thiessen was born in Troy, N.Y., on April 8, 1872. His service in the Weather Bureau began at Pittsburgh as observer on July 1, 1898. He subsequently was assigned to Helena, Washington, Point Reyes and Manteo as assistant, and to Mount Weather, Raleigh, Indianapolis, Salt Lake City, Portland, Baltimore, and Denver as official in charge. He resigned from the Weather Bureau on December 11, 1920 to accept a commission as Captain in the Regular Army. 
[Weather Bureau Topics and Personnel, May 1942] 

附3:https://www.houseofnames.com/thiessen-family-crest

                   Thiessen姓氏的沿革

Thiessen History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms


Origins Available: English , German 
The name Thiessen derives from the German personal name Matthias which in turn derives from the apostle Matthaeus (English Matthew). Versions of this name were very popular in the Middle Ages throughout Christian Europe.

Early Origins of the Thiessen family

The surname Thiessen was first found in Germany, where the name came from humble beginnings but gained a significant reputation for its contribution to the emerging mediaeval society.

附4:https://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Utah-Alfred-H-Thiessen/dp/B0008D3XX0

              Climate of Utah(泰森出版的著作《犹他的气候》)

by Alfred H Thiessen (Author)

Publisher: Tribune-reporter Print. Co (1911)

Language: English

ASIN: B0008D3XX0

附5:https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2360203

             Weather glossary(泰森编纂的著作《气象词汇》) 

compiled by Alfred H. Thiessen

Bib ID2360203

DescriptionWash. : Govt. Print., Off., 1946 

附6:https://library.noaa.gov/Collections/Digital-Collections/Why-the-Weather

         美国NOAA中心图书馆保存的由泰森著述或整理的文献

Browse records in   all searchable columns  Title  Subject  Author  Date of Publication   that   contain  start with  end with  are equal to      Search  Reset Search   

TitleSubjectAuthorDate of Publication
ForecastingAbbe, ClevelandThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)February 6, 1941
Solar HeatersAbbot, Charles G.Thiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)February 10, 1940
Climate and AgricultureAgricultureThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)November 30, 1940
Clean AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)November 5, 1938
Cold Air And Water VaporAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)January 22, 1940
Cold AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)January 27, 1938
Cross Sections Of The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)January 23, 1939
Free AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)May 5, 1938
Heavy AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)June 5, 1940
Holes and Bumps In The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)February 12, 1938
How Air Is CooledAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)November 29, 1940
Mixing The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)September 16, 1940
More AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)April 16, 1940
Movements Of Air And OceanAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)October 26, 1940
Night AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)April 26, 1939
Pure AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)1939
Rising Air CoolsAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)June 25, 1938
Rising AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)August 27, 1940
Rising And Descending AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)June 1, 1940
Studying The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)March 16, 1939
Studying The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)March 28, 1939
Warm Air RisesAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)April 24, 1939
Water In The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)June 3, 1938
Weight Of The AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)September 3, 1940
Whence Comes Our AirAirThiessen, Alfred H., Maj. (Ret.)June 14, 1940

……略



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