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国内外“洪”(flood)-“涝”(waterlogging)内涵与界定的分分合合

已有 3601 次阅读 2017-11-20 14:21 |个人分类:水文科学|系统分类:科普集锦

  ——英文中,“Flood”成为“洪涝”的代表:中文中,“涝”在一些场合成为“洪涝”的代表 

   城市内涝是指由于强降水或连续性降水超过城市排水能力致使城市内产生积水灾害的现象。近年来,由于极端天气频发,我国多座城市频繁遭遇强降雨,导致城市内涝在各座城市接连发生,“下雨天到某某城市看海”、“去某某地方观瀑布”、“汽车成了潜水艇”成为当下对城市内涝这一现象的写照。

   相对于城市内涝这一近年受到注意的对象,农业土地的涝灾已是老生常谈了。

  “洪”(flood)、“涝”(waterlogging)的内涵与界定在不同的历史年代,国内外都有一些演变。

  诺亚洪水与大禹治水故事中,洪水与猛兽被视为类似的可怕事物。在这些故事中,并不强调水平方向的河川,而主要突出从天而降的巨量雨水。

  随着水利科学的发展,洪水逐步被限定为来自区域外部、且主要通过河川形式进入当地。直接以降雨形式下降在当地、短时间内难以排水的水量,被专门称为“涝”,形成所谓“外洪内涝”的专业语汇。

  英文的flood,在辞典与一般的论文摘要中,常常可视作集“洪、涝”于一体。而在中文语境中,则是“涝”逐渐扩大地盘,在不少场合集“洪、涝”于一身。

  国内一些试点城市的洪水保险,可能对洪、涝并未作明确的区分。如:“2015年,“灿鸿”和“杜鹃”台风造成宁波全市大面积受淹。按照宁波公共巨灾保险合同的赔偿标准,进水水位线在20厘米至50厘米之间,赔偿500元;进水水位线在50厘米至100厘米之间,赔偿1000元;进水水位线超过100厘米的,赔偿2000元。”(http://mini.eastday.com/a/170704074154644-3.html

附1:http://cn.bing.com/search?q=%E6%B4%AA%E6%B0%B4%E3%80%80&qs=ds&form=QBRE(因为维基百科中文无法打开,只能看到搜索网页的文字。它将洪水限定在水体的上涨)


附2:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood(该网页提到了区域性质的flood,这与中文语境的“涝”的含义已经类似)

  A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.[1]The European Union (EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water.[2] In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide.


附3:https://www.thefreedictionary.com/flood


flood

(flŭd)

n.
1. An overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry.
2. A flood tide.
3. A large amount or number, especially when moving from one place to another: received aflood of applications. See Synonyms at flow.
4. A floodlight, specifically a unit that produces a beam of intense light.
5. Flood In the Bible, the covering of the earth with water that occurred during the time ofNoah.


flood

(flʌd)

n
1. (Physical Geography)
a. the inundation of land that is normally dry through the overflowing of a body of water,esp a river
b. the state of a river that is at an abnormally high level (esp in the phrase in flood).diluvial
2. a great outpouring or flow: a flood of words.
3. (Physical Geography)
a. the rising of the tide from low to high water
b. (as modifier): the flood tide. Compare ebb3
4. (Theatre) theatre short for floodlight
5. archaic a large body of water, as the sea or a river


附4:摘自《汉英科技大词典》


附5:https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E6%B4%AA%E6%B0%B4/19501?fr=aladdin

                                            洪水

   洪水是由暴雨、急骤融冰化雪、风暴潮等自然因素引起的江河湖海水量迅速增加或水位迅猛上涨的水流现象。当流域内发生暴雨或融雪产生径流时,都依其远近先后汇集于河道的出口断面处。当近处的径流到达时,河水流量开始增加,水位相应上涨,这时称洪水起涨。及至大部分高强度的地表径流汇集到出口断面时,河水流量增至最大值称为洪峰流量,其相应的最高水位,称为洪峰水位。到暴雨停止以后的一定时间,流域地表径流及存蓄在地面、表土及河网中的水量均已流出出口断面时,河水流量及水位回落至原来状态。洪水从起涨至峰顶到回落的整个过程连接的曲线,称为洪水过程线,其流出的总水量称洪水总量。


附6:http://mini.eastday.com/a/170704074154644-3.html

                     洪水保险趟了30年浑水,为何还是“高位低配”?

                                            2017-07-04

   到2014年,国务院发布了保险业新“国十条”,明确建立巨灾保险制度,洪水保险第一次有章可循了。

当年7月,深圳成为国内最早的巨灾保险试点城市。4个月后,国内保险业相对发达的宁波也成为试点城市之一。巨灾险试点首年,宁波市财政出资3800万元,为行政区域内1000万人口购买总额6亿元的巨灾风险保障。

附7:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterlogging_(agriculture)

  Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil with water.[1] Soil may be regarded as waterlogged when it is nearly saturated with water much of the time such that its air phase is restricted and anaerobic conditions prevail. In extreme cases of prolonged waterlogging, anaerobiosis occurs, the roots of mesophytes suffer, and the subsurface reducing atmosphere leads to such processes as denitrification, methanogenesis, and the reduction of iron and manganese oxides.In agriculture, various crops need air (specifically, oxygen) to a greater or lesser depth in the soil. Waterlogging of the soil stops air getting in. How near the water table must be to the surface for the ground to be classed as waterlogged, varies with the purpose in view. A crop's demand for freedom from waterlogging may vary between seasons of the year, as with the growing of rice (Oryza sativa).




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-350729-1086049.html

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