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Disaster Prevention and Mitigation ,Save of the Earth

已有 4400 次阅读 2010-12-21 23:46 |个人分类:学术论文交流|系统分类:论文交流

Disaster Prevention and Mitigation ,Save of the Earth
Yin GZ (Yin, Guangzhi)1, Li DW (Li, Dongwei)1
The various kinds of disaster, natural (e.g., earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, cyclones, tornadoes, tsunamis, mudslides, etc) and human caused or technological (building, bridge, freeway collapse, and other breakdowns) have the potential to damage or destroy the physical environment, the ties among people, and their environments or to intensify them, to lead to outbreaks of diseases, and cause deaths. Admittedly, the daily life of people is threatened by natural disasters. International conference of disaster technology and management sets out to advance the available knowledge in the fields and to act as an integrative agent for extant methodologies and activities relating to disaster emergency and crisis management.
The international conference of disaster technology and management mainly discussed as follows:
Physical disaster technology and mitigation
Mining disaster technology
Environmental pollution technology and management
People focus more attention on natrual, mining and environment disaster technology and management because of these following disasters.
Physical disaster
During the recent years, earthquakes, floods and mudslides are caused severe damages to human beings.
On September 6, 2010New Zealand earthquake damaged almost two-thirds of the 160,000 homes in and around Christchurch. The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 magnitude earthquake, with an epicentre near the town of Leogane, approximately 25 km west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. The earthquake occurred on Tuesday, January 12, 2010. The Haitian Government reported that an estimated 230,000 people had died, 300,000 had been injured and 1,000,000 made homeless. They also estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged. The earthquake caused major damage in Port-au-Prince, Jacmel and other settlements in the region. On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70,000 people and leaving over 18,000 missing. Over 15 million people lived in the affected area, including almost 4 million in the city of Chengdu.
Flooding accounts for about 40 percent of all natural disasters that occur worldwide. Recently, many counties experienced severe floods. Floods are particularly important in public health terms as they may have multiple environmental consequences. On September 12, 2010, twenty-four people have been killed and 29 others injured in Chad flooding. Forty-six others have died from cholera that broke out in the wake of the floods. It resulted in 70,000 homeless in flooding. On August 29, 2010, heavy rains in Niger have displaced nearly 200,000 in recent weeks. The flooding has displaced at least 198,740 people, and families left homeless in the remote Diffa region in southeast Niger and Agadez in the north. About 80,000 animals have died in Agadez flooding.
Large scale mudslides caused by heavy rainfalls on May 16, 2009 damaged at least 200 homes in three villages in Khatlon’s Khuroson district in southwester Tajikistan. The 2009 Messina floods and mudslides which occurred on the night of 1–2 October killed at least 31 people, mainly on the Ionian coast in the Province of Messina but also affected other parts of northeastern Sicily. The places which suffered the most damage were Giampilieri Superiore, a small frazione 10 kilometers south of the city of Messina, the comune of Scaletta Zanclea, and the frazione of Briga Superiore.
Mining disaster
On August 31, 2010, Drilling to reach miners began in Chile. Drilling has begun as part of an effort to reach the 33 miners who have been trapped underground in Chile for more than three weeks. On August 17, 2010, jet broke apart during landing in Colombia. National police said that 124 people were injured, many of them scattered on the darkened runway when emergency personnel arrived in the predawn hours. Six people, including an 18-month-old boy, were not injured.
The Sago Mine disaster was a coal mine explosion on January 2, 2006, in the Sago Mine in Sago, West Virginia, USA near the Upshur County seat of Buckhannon. The blast and ensuing aftermath trapped 13 miners for nearly two days with only one miner surviving. It was the worst mining disaster in the United States since the Jim Walter Resources Mine Disaster in Alabama on September 23, 2001 killed 13 people, and the worst disaster in West Virginia since the 1968 Farmington Mine Disaster that killed 78 people.
Environmental pollution
Environmental Pollution is an international journal that focuses on papers that report results from original research on the distribution and ecological effects of pollutants in air, water and soil environments.
In 1948, smoke ran like water in the Monongahela Valley and caused residents to die while others fled their homes in order to protect their health. December, 2002, marks the 50th anniversary of the great smog event in London, UK. Stagnant weather conditions caused a sharp increase in the concentration of air pollutants, and over several days, more than three times as many people died than expected, leading to an estimated excess death toll of over 4000.
Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres, and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted.
Soil is a non-renewable resource with more potential to degrade. According to the study published by the European Commission in April 2002, among other major threats to soil, decline in organic matter and contamination needs immediate attention. One of the most severe complications of soil pollution facts is that the chemicals from the soil will contaminate the crops grown on them, and also the groundwater that is used for drinking. The same contaminated soil also has the potential to seep into large water bodies and have an effect on the overall ecosystem, thus, becoming other major environmental issue.
All of these disasters make people focus more attention on environment disaster technology and management. This is partly because the environmental consequences of social activity are frequently affected by the rate and direction of technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions can themselves create constraints and incentives that have significant effects on the path of technological progress. For example, National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) supports each Technical Services Branch (TSB) on various research programs and maintains an awareness of new technologies. On January 4, 2006, U.S. Secretary of Labor Elaine L.Chao, announced that the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) would launch a full investigation to determine the cause, and to "take the necessary steps to ensure that this never happens again.
EPA is major in research organization for research, development, and evaluation of environment disaster pollution control technologies. Besides, the

scholars from the entire world committed themselves to the subject. Such like Sweden developed a theoretical understanding of experiences of crisis management among municipal leaders. The study of determining an earthquake information management system (EIMS) in Japan, Turkey and Iran and describing how it can reduce destruction by crisis management. Although recent advances in environment technology and management have helped in mitigating these disasters to a certain extent, the present study has revealed that the progress press has largely focused on disaster mitigation and preparedness guidance.
1. Sima Ajami, Mahshid Fattahi, The role of earthquake information management systems (EIMSs) in reducing destruction, Disaster Prevention and Management, 150-161 Vol. 18 No. 2 (2009)
2. Ann Enander, Susanne Hede and Orjan Lajksjo, Municipal experiences of severe storm in the shadow of the tsunami, Disaster Prevention and Management, 137-149, Vol. 18 No. 2, (2009)
3. Opran, C. Energy Risk Management, Recent Advances in Risk Management, Assessment and Mitigation, 346-50|536 (2010)
4. Guan, DJ; Gao, WJ; Song, H, et al. GIS technology supported spatial analysis and division of urban ecological environment, Energy conservation and carbon off in Asia city, 76-81(2009)
5. International Coal Group, Inc. (NYSE: ICO). Buckhannon, WV- January 18, 2006
6. Hyogo Declaration, Proceedings of Conference on Disaster Reduction in Japan, January 18-22. 2005
7. Tavakoli, N., Health information management in disaster, Proceedings of 2nd National Health and Management Disaster Meeting, Tehran, Iran: November 24-26 (in Persian). 2001
8. Yaliner, O., Description of urban information system and emergency management concepts, examples in Turkey and in the world, Master’s thesis, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.2002
9. Ajami, S., The role of information management in rendering healthcare in disasters, Proceeding of Second National Health and Management Disaster Meeting, Tehran, Iran: November 24-26 (in Persian).2002
10. Dedeoglu, N., Role of the Turkish news media in disaster preparedness, Proceeding of International Disaster Reduction Conference (IDRC), Switzerland, Davos, August 25-29.2008

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