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全球11次严重石油泄漏事件分析

已有 3651 次阅读 2011-10-23 12:01 |个人分类:世界能源|系统分类:科普集锦| 石油, 毛宁波, 泄漏

www.geology.com网站报道,世界最严重石油泄漏事件主要起因于以下三个方面:1)战争;2)钻井失控;3)油船事故。
 

 
 
Gulf War Oil Spill (1991 - Kuwait)1991年海湾战争科威特石油泄漏,估计泄漏11000000桶。

During the Gulf War, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait. As they were being driven out by Coalition forces they opened pipeline valves at the Sea Island Oil Terminal, spilling the oil onto the ground. They also spilled the cargo of tankers into the Persian Gulf. During their retreat they set many fires at wells and pipeline terminals. It is impossible to determine the total volume of oil spilled but the total could be about 11,000,000 barrels (1, 2, 3).


Lakeview Gusher (1910-11 - California, USA)1910年美国加利福尼亚 Lakeview石油井喷。估计泄漏9,000,000桶

The Lakeview Gusher was an out-of-conrol oil well that spilled an estimated 9,000,000 barrels (4, 5) of oil in Kern County, California. The well delivered oil faster than crews were able to route it into storage tanks. The pressurized well erupted like a geyser, spilling oil onto the ground for over one year until it played out naturally.


Deepwater Horizon (2010 - Gulf of Mexico)2010墨西哥湾深水水平井石油泄漏,估计泄漏四百九十万桶原油

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill is an ongoing spill in the Gulf of Mexico. It began on April 20, 2010 when an explosion destroyed the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig, causing a pressurized flow of oil near the wellhead on the Gulf of Mexico floor in over 5,000 feet of water. Numerous attempts to stop the leak in that difficult environment were partially successful. The well was finally killed on September 19, 2010. The amount of oil lost is unknown because accurate estimates can not be made from ocean floor video observations. The high estimate from the government-appointed Flow Rate Technical Group is 4.9 million barrels (6).


Ixtoc (1979 - Gulf of Mexico)1979墨西哥湾IXtoc油井泄漏,估计泄漏三百三十万桶原油

Ixtoc was an exploratory well being drilled by Pemex, Mexico's government-owned oil company, in the Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico. It was located about 60 miles northwest of Ciudad del Carmen in water about 160 feet deep. The spill was triggered when the drilling rig lost mud circulation and pressure reduction on the reservoir triggered a blowout. The oil caught fire and the rig collapsed into the ocean. The estimated amount of oil spilled was 3.3 million barrels (7, 8).


Atlantic Empress (1979 - West Indies)1979年在西印度群岛“大西洋皇后号”油船泄漏,估计泄漏2,123,800 桶原油

The Atlantic Empress was a Greek oil tanker that collided with another ship off the coast of Trinidad and Tobago on July 19, 1979. About 2,123,800 barrels of oil were spilled (9).


Mingbulak (1992 - Uzbekistan)

The Mingbulak oil spill occurred on March 2, 1992 at the Mingbulak oil field in the Fergana Valley of Uzbekistan. The spill was caused by a blowout that caught fire and burned for two months. About 2,110,000 barrels of oil were contained behind an emergency dam (10).


ABT Summer (1991 - Atlantic Ocean)

The ABT Summer was a tanker that was severely damaged by an explosion on May 28, 1991 off the coast of Angola. It was carrying a cargo of about 1,920,000 barrels of crude oil (11). The tanker sank in the Atlantic.


Castillio de Bellver (1983 - Atlantic Ocean)

The Castillio de Bellver was severely damaged by a fire on August 6, 1983 off the coast of South Africa with about 1,870,000 barrels of oil on board (12). The tanker washed aground and broke in two. The stern drifted from shore and sank in the Atlantic.


Amoco Cadiz (1978 - Atlantic Ocean)

The Amoco Cadiz was a very large crude carrier that encountered an extreme storm and ran aground on the coast of Brittany, France on March 16, 1978. The ship had about 1,600,000 barrels of oil onboard (13). A rip in the hull from the grounding started the spill. The ship broke up over the next few days, spilling most of the oil.


MT Haven (1991 - Mediterranean)

The MT Haven was a very large crude carrier that caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Italy on April 11, 1991. It was carrying 1,140,000 barrels of crude oil (14).


Odyssey (1988 - Mediterranean)

They Odyssey was an oil tanker that sank off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada on November 10, 1988. It was caught in a North Atlantic storm and was broken up by an on board explosion. It was carrying 977,000 barrels of crude oil (15).


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