Anna999的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Anna999

博文

英语语法要领通识-7-动词(7.1-动词概要)【重新发布】

已有 1719 次阅读 2019-9-12 22:23 |系统分类:教学心得

 

7.1 动词概要

1)动词的定义与分类

1)动词的定义

表示动作或状态的词叫作动词。

2)动词的分类

2-1)根据动词的句法功能分类

根据句法功能,通常动词可分为四大类:及物与不及物实义动词、连系动词或称系动词、助动词和情态动词。实际上,情态动词均为助动词。

根据这种分类,有许多动词是两种以上兼类动词。如:

have是及物实义动词兼助动词

a) We are having a meeting. 我们正在开会。(在此have是实义动词:进行)

b) They have gone to New York. 他们去纽约了。在此have是助动词,与gone构成动词go的现在完成时态)

get是及物实义动词兼系动词

  c) Where did you get these ideas? 你的这些想法都是从哪儿来的啊?(在此,get是及物动词:获得)

  d) The weather is getting hot. 天气热起来了。(在此,get是系动词:变得,(开始)起来)

2-1-1)及物与不及物实义动词

根据实义动词后是否带有宾语可分为两大类:及物动词和不及物动词,缩写形式分别为vt. vi.同一动词往往也可兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:

e) She can dance and sing. 她能歌善舞。(在此,sing用作不及物动词)

f) She can sing many English songs. 她能唱许多英文歌曲。(在此,sing用作及物动词)

2-1-1-1)及物动词

  及物动词是指在其后可直接加宾语的动词。如:

g) Open the door to your father. 给你父亲留(开)着门!

  h) The two sides should reach an identity of views. 双方应该达成一致的看法。

i) I lent him the bike. 我把那辆自行车借给了他。

  j) We must not impose our views on others. 我们不应该把自己的观点强加于人。

  k) The government imposes heavy duties on tobaccos and wines. 政府对烟酒征收重税。

常见接单宾语的及物动词:

accept接受,承认(如:He accepted the criticism. 他接受了批评。He didn’t accept his defeat. 他不承认他输了。);

admire羡慕,佩服,赞赏(如:I admire her for her standing firmly and unbending-down. 我佩服她的坚贞不屈。);   

admit承认,容纳,允许进入(如:He has admitted the fact. 他承认了这个事实。The room may admit 2 persons. 这房间可以住(容纳)两个人。She was admitted to Beijing Normal University. 她被北京师范大学录取了。);

affect影响,感动(如:Smoking affects health. 抽烟影响健康。She was deeply affected by his words. 她被他的话深深打动了。);

afford负担得起(费用、损失等),提供,给予(如:He couldn’t afford to pay for such expensive losses of reputation. 他负担不起如此昂贵的名誉损失。);

announce正式宣告/宣布,告知,报告到来(如:They announced the date of their wedding. 他们宣布了他们的结婚日期。The servant announced Mr. and Mrs. Brown. 仆人禀报布朗夫妇来了。);

borrow借来(如:May I borrow your pen? 我能借你只笔吗?);

bury 埋,隐藏(The dog has buried a bone. 那只狗藏起了一根骨头。);

celebrate庆祝,祝贺,颂扬(如:He celebrates his birthday every year. 他每年庆祝(过)生日。His deed was celebrated by people. 他的事迹受到人们颂扬。);

cover覆盖,遮盖,掩饰,占用(时间,空间),行过(路程),包括,涉及(如:Snow covered the ground. 白雪覆盖着大地。Lies cannot cover the facts. 谎言掩盖不了事实。This period covered about 50 years. 这个时代大约有50年左右。His researches covered a wide field. 他的研究领域很广。This car covered twenty kilometers a day. 这辆车一天行程有2000公里。);

defeat击败(如:We defeated the enemy in the battle. 我们在战斗中打败了敌人。);

defend保卫,防护(如: We must defend our social safety. 我们必须保护我们的社会安全。);

destroy 毁坏,破坏(如:They destroyed the forests. 他们毁坏了森林。);

enjoy喜爱,享受,(如:We enjoy free medical care. 我们享受免费医疗。How did you enjoy yourselves? 你们玩儿得怎么样?);

forget忘记,忽略(如:He even forget his meals. 他曾至忘了吃饭。Don’t forget your duties. 别玩忽职守。);

guess猜测,猜出(如:He guessed the right answer at once. 他立刻猜出了正确答案。);

invent发明,捏造(如:Edison invented the electric lamp. 爱迪生发明了电灯。She invented the false news. 她捏造了假消息。);

love爱(如:You love him and then love his dog. 你爱屋及乌。);

raise举起,扶起,使升高,提出(问题),激起,养育,种植(如:Everyone raised a flag. 每个人都举起了一面旗子。 We raised the woman to her feet. 我们把那位女子扶了起来。Heavy rains raised the river. 暴雨使河流水位升高了。The farmers raise chickens and rice. 这些农民养鸡、种水稻。The remark raised a laugh. 此番评论激起了一片笑声。);等。

英语中有些动词须后接双宾语,即直接宾语(direct object)和间接宾语(indirect object)。直接宾语是动词所表动作的作用结果或作用对像,间接宾语是动作的指向即动作的作用结果或作用对像的承受者。如:

  l) She made her daughter a scarf. 她给女儿做了一条围巾。【注:其中动词made后接的her daughter是“制做made”这个动作结果的承受者,是间接宾语;a scarf是“制做made”这个动作的作用结果,是直接宾语。】

  m) He threw me a basketball. 他扔给我一个篮球。

【注:其中动词threw后接的me是“扔threw”这个动作结果的承受者,是间接宾语;a basketball是“扔threw”这个动作的作用对像,是直接宾语。】

常见后接双宾语的及物动词:

①直接宾语提前时,后置的间接宾语前须加介词to的及物动词

give给予(如:He gave me a dictionary. 他给了我一本字典。);

hand递给,呈交(如:He handed the documents to the clerk. 他把文件交给了办事人员);

lend借给,借出(如:I lent him some money. 我借给他一些钱。);

pass传递(如:Please pass me the book. 请把那本书递给我。);

post邮寄(如:I will post you a parcel. 我要给你寄个包裹。);

promise允诺,约定,答应(如:I promised her a reply. 我答应给她个回复。);

read读给(I will read you an interesting passage. 我来给你读一段有趣的文章。);

return归还(如:He returned me the book. 他已经还给了我那本书。);

show看,指出(如:Please show me some hats. 请拿几顶帽子来给我看看吧!Please show me the way. 请给我指个路吧!);等。

②直接宾语提前时,后置的间接宾语前需加介词for的及物动词

buy买(如:She would buy some new dresses for herself. 她想给自己买几件新衣服。);

cook烹饪,做饭(She cooked a delicious dinner for them. 她给他们做了一顿美餐。);

fetch取来(Would you please fetch a parcel in the post office for me? 请你去把在邮局里的一个包裹给我取来好吗?【辨析fetchbring, carry的区别:fetch表“去拿来/取来/接来”时,具有“双程往返”之意(如:Fetch me a new chair. 去给我拿把新椅子来。);bring sth. to/with sb.表“单程拿来、带来”之意(如:Take the chair away and bring a new one to me. 把这椅子拿走,给我拿个新的来。Don’t forget to bring the book with you. 别忘了把书带来。);当carry表“携带”之意时,不表与说话者的方向性关系(如:How many kilograms of luggage can I carry with me? 我可以随身携带多少公斤行李?)】);

order点餐,订购,定做(如:What meal shall I order for you? 我给你点个什么餐呢?I have ordered a new suit for you. 我给你定做/订购了一套新衣服。);

save存储,节省(如:She saved five hundred yuan for her journey to Beijing. 她为北京之行省下了500元。);

spare留出,匀出(如:Can you spare one of them for me? 能给我留一个吗?);等。

③直接宾语提前时,后置的间接宾语前既可加to也可加for的及物动词

play演奏,播放(如:They are playing a march for/to us.他们正在给我们演奏一首进行曲。);

sing唱歌(如:I would sing a song for/to you. 我想给你唱首歌。);等。

【注:①如果双宾语均为代词,通常间接宾语须置于直接宾语之后,并在间接宾语前加介词to,如:Give it to me. 把它给我。②如果强调间接宾语,可加to后提至句首,如:To me give it, not to him. 是要把它给我的,不是给他的!③有些动词的间接宾语必须置于直接宾语前,如:He kissed her good-bye. 他向她吻别。④如果直接宾语是从句,则间接宾语必须前置。】

英语中有些动词须后接复合宾语。复合宾语包括宾语和宾语补足语(即宾补)。宾补用于宾语(动作的承受者)后,补充说明宾语的状态、性质、特征以及所作所为或被作为等。可作宾补的词类包括名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式以及分词等。如:

 n) You should put your things in order. 你应该把你的东西归置(摆放)整齐。(其中宾语your things是谓语动词put的动作承受者,宾补in order表宾语your things的状态)

 o) We saw the children playing in the park. 我们看见孩子们正在公园里玩儿。

(宾语the children是谓语动词saw的动作承受者,宾补playing in the park表宾语the children的所作所为)

 p) I feel it cold. 我觉得它很冷。(宾语it是谓语动词“摸起来感觉到feel”这个动作的承受者,宾补cold表宾语it的状态)


常见后接复合宾语的及物动词:

 形容词(或相当于形容词的分词)或其短语作宾补的动词:

dye染(如:dye a white dress blue把白衣染蓝);

drive迫使,逼迫(如:drive a person hard 逼人太甚);

find感到,觉得(如:I found him easy to get along with. 我觉得他很好相处。);

get 使得(如:Get everything ready. 作好一切准备。);

knock撞击,敲击(如:Who knocked the bottle broken? 谁把瓶子打碎了?);

make使得(如:He made himself heard across the room. 他提高嗓门使得整个房间的人都听得见。Too much food made him ill. 吃太多的食物使他生病了。);

think认为(如:I thought her rather clever. 我认为她挺聪明的。);等。

② 名词或其短语作宾补的动词:

appoint任命(如:They appointed him (to be/as) a chairman. 他们任命他为主席。);

call叫作,取名为(如:We call the new town Harlow. 我们给这个新镇取名为哈罗。Let’s call the baby Jean. 我们给孩子取名叫“珍”吧!);

elect选举(They elected him (as) a chairman. 他们选他为主席。);

make使成为,使具有(尤指好的)性质(如:No one could have made John a better teacher of him. 没有人比约翰更适合作他的老师了。);

name取名,命名(如:We named her Mary. 我们给她取名叫玛丽。);

vote投票决定给(某人、某地或某事物)(如:They have voted the town a large sum of money for a new road. 他们已经投票决定给这座城镇一大笔钱修建一条新路。);等。

 以带to的不定式作宾补的动词:

advise建议(如:I advise you not to tell lie. 我劝你别撒谎。);

allow允许(如:I never allow myself to get lazy. 我从不允许自己懒惰。);

ask要求(某人)做(某事)(如:She asked me to do it. 她要我去做这件事。);

cause导致(如:Heat causes water to evaporate. 热使水蒸发。);

command 命令(The leader commanded/ordered them to start the work at once. 领导令他们立刻开始工作。【辨析commandorder都有命令之意,但有区别。order作为普通用语表强制性,可与command换用,而当用作医生对病人的嘱咐时则没有强制性,不可换用,如:The doctor ordered him to stay in bed. 医生嘱咐他卧床休息。】);

enable使能够(如:Endurance enabled him to win a victory. 坚持到底才使他能够取得了胜利。);

encourage 鼓励(如:The father encouraged his son to study harder. 父亲鼓励儿子要更加努力学习。);

expect预期,期待,料想(如:I expect the taxi to come here in five minutes. 我预料出租车5分钟后就到了。);

forbid禁止(如:We must forbid the pupils to smoke. 我们必须禁止学生抽烟。);

force逼迫(如:He forced me to open the door. 他逼我去开门。);

instruct指示(如:He instructed his subordinates to investigate the case. 他指示他的下属去调查这个案子。);

intend打算要(如:She intended his daughter to be a doctor.她打算要女儿当医生。);

invite邀请(如:I invited her to come to my birthday party. 我邀请了她来参加我的生日聚会。);

oblige责成,逼迫(如:Circumstances oblige me to practise economy. 环境逼我实行节约。);

order命令,嘱咐(如:The doctor ordered me to have a good rest. 医生嘱咐我好好休息。);

permit允许,许可(如:Permit me to say a few of words to you. 请允许我对你说几句话。I will permit him to do so. 我准备同意他这样做。【辨析:allowpermit都有“允许”之意,均可后接不定式作宾补,表客气的请求时可换用,如:Allow/Permit me to introduce myself. 请允许我作个自我介绍。但若表“允许某人做某事”时,allow有消极意义,即表“听任性质的允许”,而permit则表“积极意义的允许”,语气较强。】);

persuade说服,使相信(如:We persuaded him to take the job. 我们说服他接受了这项工作。);

remind提醒(如:Please remind me to write a letter tomorrow. 请提醒我明天写封信。);

teach教授(如:He teaches children (how) to swim. 他教孩子们(如何)游泳。);

tell告诉,通知(如: We told them to stay where they were. 我们告知了他们要留在原地。);

urge敦促,怂恿(如:They urged the man to go with them. 他们怂恿那男子和他们一道去。);

want需要(如:I want him to rest. 我想要他休息一下。);

warn警告(如:We warned them not to go skating on such thin ice. 我们已经警告他们了,不要在这么薄的冰面上滑冰。);等。

④ 以不带to的不定式作宾补的动词:

feel感受到(如:She felt her heart beat. 她感到自己的心在跳。);   

have使(如:Have him do so. 就让他去那么干吧!);

let让(如:Let us try again. 让我们再试试吧。);

hear听见(如:I heard him speak English. 我听见过他说英语。); 

listen to听(如:I listened to him talk about his patients.(其中的talk是不带to的动词不定式 我已经听他谈过他的病人的情况了。【比较:I listened to his talk about his patients.(其中的talk是名词)】);    

make引起(如:They made him do so. 他们使他如此行事。);

see看见(如:I saw him enter the room. 我看见他进了那个房间。);等。

 ⑤“to be+名词或形容词”或“to have done”结构作宾补的动词:

assume假设,假定(如:I assumed him to be able to read. 我假定他有阅读能力。);

believe认为,相信(People widely believed the four men to have been killed by their captors. 人们普遍认为那四名男子已遭劫持者杀害。)

consider认为(如:We consider it (to be) helpful. 我们认为它是有用的。);

declare 宣布,宣称,申报,声明(如:The accused declared himself to be innocent. 被告宣称自己无罪。);

feel感觉(如:I felt (to be) young again. 我感到又年轻了。);

imagine猜想,设想(如:Imagine yourself (to be) on a desert island. 设想一下,你身处一个荒岛上。);

know知道(如:I know him to be an honest man. 我知道他是个老实人。);

prove证明,显示,表明(如:Our reference books proved (to be) insufficient. 我们的参考书显得不足。);

think认为(如:I think it to be a good thing. 我认为这是件好事。);

understand 推测,揣摩,以为(如:I understand him to be a teacher. 我还以为他是个老师呢。);等。

⑥ 以现在分词作宾补的动词:

catch撞见(如:A cat caught a group of mice stealing and jumped on to them at once. 一只猫撞见一群老鼠在偷东西,立即扑了上去。);

find发现(如:They found the lost child hiding in the cave.他们找到了藏身在洞穴中的那个丢失的小孩儿。);

hear听见(如:I heard him speaking English. 我听见他在说英语。I heard somebody laughing/knocking. 我听见有人在笑/敲门。【辨析:①hear是直接听到,hear of是间接听到即“听(别人或报刊或电台等)说”,hear from是“接收到(来信或来电)”之意;②hear后接宾补可以是不带to的不定式(表已发生或全过程)或分词(表正在发生的动作),但用被动语态时要变为带to的不定式,如:He was heard to speak English. 有人听见他说英语了。③hearlisten 均有“听”之意,但listen 是不及物动词,须加介词to后接宾语,表“倾听、注意听”之类的有意识动作,可有进行时态;而hear是及物动词,直接加宾语,表“听到”的结果。如:I listened to the radio but couldn’t hear anything clearly. 我注意听广播了,但什么都听不清。】);

keep使保持(如:He kept me waiting for two hours. 他让我等了两小时。);

observe观察到,注意到(如:I observed him going out.我看到他出去了。);     

notice注意到(如:I noticed him entering. 我看到他进来了。);

feel感觉到(如:I felt something touch/touching my foot. 我感到有什么东西碰我的脚。);

get使(如:I’ll get the car going. 我要让车子发动起来。);等。

 以过去分词作宾补的动词:

feel感觉到(如:She felt herself (to be) unwanted. 她感到自己是没人要的。);     

get使(如:We should get the car fixed/repaired. 我们应该让人把那辆车修好。);

have使(如:I have my hair cut every month. 我每月理发。He had a tooth taken out. 他拔了一颗牙。); 

hear听到(如:I often heard this song sung by young people. 我常听年轻人唱这首歌。);

make引起(如:If you want to make yourself respected, you should be the first of all who respect others. 你要想得到别人的尊重,你就应该首先尊重别人。);

see看见(如:I have often seen it done. 我常见有人做这件事。);

find发现(如:They found him murdered. 他们发现他被谋杀了。);等。

 以形容词/副词或其短语,或以介词短语作宾补的动词:

allow允许(如:He allow you into the room. 他允许你进入房间。);

ask请求,要求(如:Don’t ask me for money!别跟我要钱!);

drive驱使,迫使(如:They drove trade away. 他们把生意给赶走了。);

find发现(如:I found something wrong. 我发现不对劲。);

invite邀请(如:Why don’t you invited me into the house? 你为什么不邀请我进家门呢?);

keep使保持(Please keep this for me. 请替我保管这件东西。);

lead使得,致使(如:His careless spending led him into debt. 他的随意花钱使他负债了。);

see看明白,想像(如:I can see a great future for you in music. 我可以想像你在音乐方面是前途无量的。);

show证明是(如:He showed himself brave in battle. 他在战斗中证明自己很勇敢。);等。

2-1-1-2)不及动词                                         不及物动词是指不可在其后直接加宾语的动词。不及物动词后的名词不是宾语,而是状语或表语。如:

q) It is time for us to go. 我们该走了。

  r) The players rehearse or perform on the stage every day. 演员们每天在舞台上排练或演出。

  s) He runs two kilometers every morning. 他每天早晨跑2公里。

  t) This baggage weighs three kilograms. 这行李重3公斤。

  u) This pen costs little. 这只笔不值几个钱。

常见不及物动词:

ache作痛;agree同意;apologize 道歉;appear出现;

arrive到达; come来;cry哭;dance跳舞;die死;

disappear 消失;dream作梦;exist存在;flow流动;

fall下降,消沉,跌倒,下垂,堕落;go去;

graduate毕业;happen发生;lie躺着,平放,位于;

rise増加,上升;run运营,跑;sit坐着,位于;

stand站立;stay停留,逗留,待着;wait等待;等。

2-1-2)系动词

a) The shop stays open till 8 o’clock at evening. 这家商店一直开门到晚8点。

  b) Please be/keep quiet. 请(保持)安静。(系动词bekeep

 【比较:Please keep the children quiet. 请让孩子们保持安静。(及物动词keep)】

2-1-3)助动词

    助动词是指本身不能单独使用,只能与实义动词联用而构成动词的时态、语态、否定以及疑问等形式的一类词。助动词还可按其是否具有实义而分为两种:一种是无实义的助动词,主要有bedohavebe还可兼作系动词,dohave还可兼作实意动词】以及时态助动词shall, should, willwould【均可兼作情态助动词】;另外,所有的情态动词均为有实际情感意义的助动词(在后续章节中将把情态动词归为助动词类)。如:

  a) You haven’t gone to school today, have you? 今天你没去上学,是吗?(助动词have的否定式haven’t与实义动词go的过去分词gone构成现在完成时态的否定式)

  b) Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿意和我一起去看电影吗?(用作助动词的表愿意的情态动词will与实义动词go构成一般将来时态的一般疑问句)

 c) He was driving on the road to Beijing One at 9 o’clock yesterday morning. 昨天上午9点,他正在开车去北京的路上。(用作助动词的be的一般过去时态的第三人称单数形式was与实意动词drive的现在分词driving 构成过去进行时态)

2-1-4)情态动词(即情态助动词)

 a) You can do it only if you will. 只要你愿意,你就能干成。

 b) Everyone should live by one’s hands in a meaningful way. 每个人都应该靠双手劳动过一种有意义的生活。

2-2)根据动词是否受主语人称数的限制可分为两大类:限定动词和非限定动词。英语中共有四种非限定动词:动词不定式、动名词、现在分词和过去分词,详见后续专题。在此仅简单举例,如:

 a) She sings very well. 她唱得很好。(限定动词sing受其主语是第三人称单数she的限制,须加-s,即表为sings

 b) She wants to learn English well. 她想学好英语。(限定动词want受其主语是第三人称单数she的限制,须加-s,即表为wants;而动词不定式to learn是非限定动词,不受主语第三人称单数she的限制,故用动词原形而无词形变化)

2-3)根据动词的词法功用可分为两大类:状态动词和动作动词,均为实意动词。

2-3-1)状态动词

状态动词是描述事物状态的相对静止的动词。

状态动词常见有:

表一般状态的,belong to属于,contain含有,differ from不同于,matter有关系、要紧,own拥有,lie躺、展现、位于,have有,等;

表五官感觉的,hear听,see看,feel感觉、触摸,taste尝起来,smell闻,等;

表心理或情感状态的,believe相信,consider认为、考虑,expect期待,imagine想象,regret遗憾、后悔,remember记得、牢记、代问个好,love爱,think想、认为,等;

状态动词的一般用法,如:

   a) One must love one’s own home. 想必人人都爱自己的家。

   b) Do you think how I should do? 你认为我该如何做?

   c) Korea lies to the east of China. 朝鲜位于中国东部。

   d) I have a question to ask. 我有个问题要问。

2-3-2)动作动词

动作动词又可分为延续性即持续性动词与非延续性即终止性动词。

2-3-2-1)延续性动词

延续性动词或称持续性动词是指表示能够延续的动作的动词。如:

  a) He walks/runs 20 km every day. 他每天散步/跑步20公里。

  b) She dances very well. 她跳舞跳得非常好。

  c) She is writing a letter. 她正在写信。

常见延续性动词:

walk走,步行,散步;run跑;write书写;

sing唱歌;dance跳舞;eat吃;drink 喝;fly飞行;

have具有;keep保持;lie躺着,位于;live居住;

play玩;rain下雨;read阅读;sleep睡觉;

smoke吸烟;snow下雪;stand站立;talk谈话;

wait 等待;wear 穿着;work工作;sit坐着;等。

2-3-2-2)非延续性即终止性动词

非延续性即非持续性动词或称终止性动词、短暂性动词、瞬间动词或点动词,所表示的动作不能延续,即动作发生后立即结束。如:

d) We must open the windows first after getting up every morning. 我们每天早晨起床后都应该首先打开窗户。

  e) We came here seventeen years ago. 我们来这里十七年了。

常见非延续性即终止性动词:

arrive/reach 到达;begin开始;buy买;borrow 借入;

break打破,弄坏;cause导致,引起;close/shut 关闭;

come来;die死去;finish完成,结束;give给;

go去;hit击,打;join加入;leave离开;lose丢失;

marry结婚;open打开;post 邮寄;put放置;

receive 接收;stop停止;等。

2-4根据动词的组成结构可分为三大类:单词动词One-Word Verb、短语动词Phrasal Verb和动词短语Verbal Phrase。如:

 a) The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases. 英语包含许多短语动词和动词短语。(contain是单词动词)

b) Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries. 学生们应该学会在字典里查生词。(look up是短语动词)

c) He always lives up to his word. 他向来说话算数。(live up to one’s word是动词短语)

 

2)动词的语法特征

英语动词是英语词类中最复杂的一种,主要有以下4种语法(包括词法与句法)特征。

1)动词的时态

描述在不同的时间发生的动作或存在的状态,动词需要赋以不同的形式,即动词的时态。英语动词的时态分为4种时间和4类状态。4种时间是现在、过去、将来、过去将来4类状态是一般、进行、完成、完成进行。因此英语动词的时态可以此组合为下表中的16种:

一般现在时

一般过去时

一般将来时 

过去将来时

现在进行时

过去进行时

将来进行时

过去将来

进行时

现在完成时 

过去完成时 

将来完成时 

过去将来

完成时

现在完成

进行时

过去完成

进行时

将来完成

进行时

过去将来

完成进行时

英语的时态虽有16种,但其中的过去将来进行时、过去将来完成时、将来完成进行时、过去将来完成进行时”4种时态是不常用的,常用的只有12种。如:

 a) The earth moves round the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。(一般现在时)

 b) Dr. Bethune was a great international fighter. 白求恩大夫是一位伟大的国际主义战士。(一般过去时)

 c) They shall go. 他们将要走了。(一般将来时)

 d) I wanted to know when he would finish the article. 我想知道他什么时候写完这篇文章。(一般过去将来时)

 e) He is reading an English book. 他正在阅读(看)一本英语书。(现在进行时)

 f) She was reading an English book when I came in. 我进来时,她正在看一本英语书。(过去进行时)

 g) I will be giving a lesson in the classroom at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning. 我明早8点将在教室里上课。(将来进行时)

 h) She has gone to England. 她去英国了。(现在完成时)

 i) By the end of last year, he had learned about 5000 English words. 到去年年底,他已经学会了5千个英语单词。(过去完成时)

 j) By the end of this year, he will have learned 10000 English words. 到今年年底,他将要学会1万个英语单词。(将来完成时)

 k) He has been learning English for ten years. 他学英语已经十年了。(现在完成进行时,表持续到现在的动作)

 l) Have you been meeting him recently? 你最近常和他见面吗?(现在完成进行时,表现在的重复性动作)

m) How long have you been wearing glasses? 你戴眼镜多久了?(现在完成进行时,表现在长时间做某事)

n) Time has been flying so quickly. 时光匆匆快如飞啊!(现在完成进行时,表感情色彩)

o) He asked I how long I had been waiting. 他问我已经等了多长时间了。(过去完成进行时)

p) I believed that you would have finished the task the next morning. 我相信第二天早上你将会完成这项任务。(过去将来完成时

q) I told him that by 8 o’clock tomorrow morning I would have been waiting for him for twelve hours. 我告诉他说,到明早8点钟时我将一直等他12个小时了。(过去将来完成进行时

r) By 8 o’clock tomorrow morning, I will have been waiting for him for twelve hours. 到明早8点,我就已经一直等他12个小时了。(将来完成进行时

s) He told me that he would be waiting for me to 8 o’clock tomorrow morning. 他告诉我说,直到明早8点他都要等我。(过去将来进行时

2)动词的语态

动词的语态有两种,即主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语与动词是主动关系,主语是施动者;被动语态表示主语与动词是被动关系,主语是受动者。如:

 a) He told the teacher that two students were fighting in the classroom. 他告诉老师说,有两个学生在教室里打起来了。(主动语态)

 b) The teacher was told that two students were fighting in the classroom. 有人告老师说,有两个学生在教室里打起来了。(被动语态)

3)动词的语气

动词的语气是表示说话者的用意或态度,包括4种:陈述语气,疑问语气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。在不同的语气中,动词的形式不同。如:

 a) They carry out a research into the causes of cancer. 他们深入研究癌症的原因。(肯定式陈述语气)

b) The fish is not alive without water. 鱼儿离不开水。(否定式陈述语气)

 c) Do you remember that she gave us lessens? 你还记得她给我们上过课吗?(疑问语气)

 d) Don’t smoking here. 这里不许吸烟!(祈使语气)

 e) I wish I could fly. 但愿我能飞翔!(虚拟语气)

4)动词的多样化基本结构形式

动词有5种基本形式:动词原形(Original Form)、动词的第三人称单数形式(Singular From in Third Personal)、动词的现在分词(Present Participle)形式、动词的过去式(Past Form)和过去分词(Past Participle)形式。如:

 a) We write an academic monograph every year. 我们每年写一本学术专著。(动词原形)

 b) He writes an academic monograph every year. 他每年写一本学术专著。(动词的第三人称单数形式)

c) I am writing an academic monograph. 我正在写一本学术专著。(动词的现在分词形式)

d) I wrote an academic monograph. 我曾经写过一本学术专著。(动词的过去式)

e) I have written an academic monograph. 我已经写完了一本学术专著。(动词的过去分词形式)

4-1)动词人称数的变化与第三人称单数形式

动词有人称数的变化,通常谓语动词的人称数要保持与主语的人称数一致,系动词be具有多种人称数的变化,一般动词通常均有第三人称单数形式。如:

 f) He works very hard. 他工作很努力。(动词取第三人称单数形式,与主语的第三人称单数形式保持一致)

 g) They work very hard. 他们工作很努力。(动词与主语保持非第三人称单数形式的一致)

 h) I am a student. 我是一个学生。(主语是第一人称单数,系动词be取相应的am形式)

4-1-1)动词第三人称单数的变化规则

4-1-1-1)多数动词在词尾加-s,如:

defeat打败— defeatsfall下降— falls

hope希望— hopesmake制作— makes

rise上升— risesrun— runs

succeed成功— succeedswalk— walks

4-1-1-2)以osxchsh结尾的动词,在词尾加-es,如:

do— doesecho反射,回音— echoes

go— goesveto否决— vetoes

dress穿衣— dressesexpress表达— expresses

guess猜测— guesseskiss— kisses

fix固定— fixesmix混合— mixes

relax放松— relaxes          tax 征税— taxes

reach到达— reaches     search搜寻— searches

teach教导— teachestouch接触,触碰— touches

finish完成,结束— finishespunish惩罚— punishes

wash洗涤— washes     wish希望— wishes

4-1-1-3)以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,变yi,再加-es,如:

carry携带— carriesdeny否认— denies

envy嫉妒— enviesreply回答— replies

supply供应— suppliestry尝试— tries

vary改变,变异— variesworry担心— worries

4-1-1-4)动词behave的第三人称单数形式分别为is / was(过去式)和has

4-2)动词的现在分词形式

4-2-1)一般情况下,在动词词尾直接加-ing。如:

build 建立— building  earn 赚钱— earning

grow 成长— growing  repeat重复— repeating

speak说话— speaking start开始— starting

train训练— training     work工作— working

4-2-2)以不发音的e结尾的动词,去掉e,再加-ing。如:

achieve取得— achieving  change改变— changing

continue继续— continuing    leave 离开— leaving

move移动— moving    organize组织— organizing

prepare 准备— preparing  reduce减少— reducing

4-2-3)单音节,且以元音字母+辅音字母结尾的动词,要双写最后的辅音字母,再加-ing。如:

drop掉落— dropping plan 计划— planning

set放置— setting get得到— getting run— running sit坐下sitting swim 游泳— swimming stir搅动—stirring

但以x结尾的动词除外,如:

fix—固定—fixingmix混合— mixing

4-2-4)重音在最后一个音节且结尾是辅音字母的动词,要双写最后的辅音字母,再加-ing。如:

compel强迫— compelling occur发生— occurring

refer涉及,参考— referring transfer转移— transferring

begin开始— beginningforget忘记— forgetting

omit 遗漏— omitting regret遗憾— regretting

但以x结尾的动词除外,如:

relax放松— relaxingperplex使困惑— perplexing

4-2-5)以字母c结尾的动词,加-king如:

bivouac露宿— bivouacking havoc严重破坏— havocking

mimic模仿— mimickingpanic恐慌— panicking

picnic野餐— picnickingtraffic交易— trafficking

4-2-6)以-ie结尾的动词,变-ie-y,再加-ing。如:

die死亡— dying     lie躺,撒谎— lying

tie捆绑— tying  vie竞争— vying

4-2-7)以l / m / p结尾的某些动词,不论是否单音节或重音在最后一个音节,变现在分词时最后一个字母可以双写,也可以不双写(英式英语双写,美式英语单写)。如:

cancel取消— cancel(l)ingdial拨号— dial(l)ing

equal等同— equal(l)inglabel加标签— label(l)ing

marvel惊讶— marvel(l)ingmodel模仿— model(l)ing

program编程 — program(m)ingtravel旅行— travel(l)ing

rival竞争— rival(l)ingquarrel争吵— quarrel(l)ing

worship崇拜— worship(p)ing

4-2-8)一些以s结尾的动词变现在分词时,可双写s,也可以不双写。如:

bias偏见— bias(s)ingnonplus困惑— nonplus(s)ing

bus乘公交车— bus(s)ingfocus聚焦— focus(s)ing

4-3)动词的过去式和过去分词形式

4-3-1)动词的过去式和过去分词形式的规则变化

4-3-1-1)一般动词在词尾直接加-ed,如:

broaden加宽— broadened develop发展— developed

enjoy享受— enjoyedobey遵守— obeyed

respect尊重— respectedwish希望— wished

prompt推动,提醒— promptedwatch观察— watched

4-3-1-2)以字母e结尾的动词,在词尾只加-d,如:

believe相信— believedcomplete完成— completed

judge判断— judgedlove— loved

refuse拒绝— refusedurge催促— urged

place放置— pacedrule统治— ruled

4-3-1-3)以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,变yi,再加-ed,如:

carry携带,运送— carrieddeny否认— denied

envy嫉妒— enviedreply回答— replied

supply供应— suppliedtry尝试— tried

vary变化(异),使不同— variedworry担忧— worried

4-3-1-4)单个元音字母加单个辅音字母的单音节动词,须双写辅音字母,再加-ed,如:

ban禁止— bannedbeg乞求— begged

drop掉落— droppedplan 计划— planned

rob抢劫— robbedscan 审视— scanned

stop 停止— stoppedstir搅动— stirred

但以x结尾的动词除外,如:

fix固定— fixedmix混合— mixed

还有少量例外,过去式与过去分词不同,如:getswim等,详见后续的动词不规则变化。

4-3-1-5)重音在最后一个音节,并且以辅音字母结尾的动词,须双写辅音字母,再加-ed。如:

admit承认— admittedcompel强迫— compelled,

occur发生— occurredomit遗漏— omitted

prefer偏爱— preferredrebel反叛— rebelled

regret遗憾— regrettedtransfer转移— transferred

但以x结尾的动词除外,如:

relax放松— relaxedperplex使困惑— perplexed

还有少数不规则变化,如:beginforget等,详见后续内容“动词的不规则变化

4-3-1-6)以字母c结尾的动词,加-ked,如:

bivouac露宿— bivouackedpanic恐慌— panicked

havoc浩劫,大破坏— havockedmimic模仿— mimicked

picnic野餐— picnickedtraffic交易,买卖— trafficked

4-3-1-7)一些以字母l / m / p结尾的动词变过去式和过去分词加-ed时,无论是否单音节词或是否重音在最后一个音节的词,均可双写或不双写最后一个字母。如:

cancel取消— cancel(l)eddial拨号— dial(l)ed

equal等同— equal(l)edlabel加标签— label(l)ed

marvel惊讶— marvel(l)edmodel模仿— model(l)ed

program编程 — program(m)edtravel旅行— travel(l)ed

rival竞争— rival(l)edquarrel争吵— quarrel(l)ed

worship 崇拜— worship(p)ed

4-3-1-8)一些以字母s结尾的动词变过去式和过去分词加-ed时,可双写也可以不双写s如:

bias偏见— bias(s)ed    bus乘公交车— bus(s)ed

focus聚焦— focus(s)ednonplus困惑— nonplus(s)ed

4-3-2)动词的过去式和过去分词形式的不规则变化

4-3-2-1)过去式与过去分词均为动词原形,如:

beset镶,嵌,困扰,包围,围绕;

bet 打赌;

broadcast广播,播送;

burst爆裂,冲刺,迸发;

bust打破,戳破,突击搜捕(或均为规则变化:busted);

cast扔,投掷,浇铸(铸造),投射,结算;

cost花费;

cut 切割;

forecast预报;

hit 打击,袭击,碰撞,偶然相遇;

hurt伤害,损害;

input输入;

inset嵌入;

knit 编织,结合(或均为规则变化:knitted);

let允许,让,留下,放下,出租;

mishit 误击;

misread 误读,读错,看错;

offset 抵销,补偿,弥补,使偏离直线方向,衬托出;

outbid       出价高于;

output       输出;

overcast使沮丧,遮蔽,(天气)变阴;

proofread       校对,校阅;

put       放置,赋予,表达,发芽;

quit 放弃,退出,辞职,停止,使解除;

read 阅读;

recast  彻底改造,重做,重铸;

reset重新设置,重组,清零;

rid 去除,使摆脱;

set 设置,放置,树立,创立,排版,分配,(日月)沉落;

shut关闭,停业;

slit  撕开,撕裂,使成长条,使有狭缝;

split 分裂,分解,使分离;

spread       传播,散布,伸展,展开;

thrust 刺向(某人),插入,猛推;

underbid 出价低于(或过去式仍为原形,但过去分词为underbidden);

upset  混乱,扰乱,颠覆,翻转;

wed结婚,与结婚,嫁,娶(或均为规则变化:wedded);

wet 弄湿,变湿(或均为规则变化:wetted);

4-3-2-2)过去式与过去分词均不同于原形,但变化相同,如:

动词原形

基本词义

过去式 & 过去分词

abide 

遵守,容忍

abode(或   abided

behold

注视,把视为

beheld

bend

(使)弯曲,使屈服

bent

bereave

使丧失亲友,剥夺

bereft   (或   bereaved

beseech

恳求,乞求

besought(或beseeched

bind

捆绑,约束,

包扎,装订

bound     

bleed

使出血,榨取,

流血,渗出

bled

bless

祝福,保佑

blest   (或   blessed

breed      

养育,繁殖

bred

bring

带来,引起

brought

build

建造

built

burn

燃烧

burnt(或   burned

buy

购买

bought

catch

抓住,赶上,感染

caught

cleave

劈开,打通

cleft

(或   clovecloven

cling  

坚持,墨守,粘附

clung

creep

爬行,蔓延

crept

deal

处理,发放,论及,应对,买卖,交易

dealt

dig     

挖掘,探究,戳刺

dug

dream

做梦,幻想,向往

dreamt(或dreamed

dwell

居住

dwelt(或   dwelled

feed

喂养,进食

fed     

feel

感觉,触摸

felt

fight

打架,斗争,战斗,竞赛,竞争,争辩

fought     

find

发现,查找,找到

found

flee

逃走,逃避,消散

fled

fling

抛掷,扔,猛冲

flung

foretell

预言  

foretold

get

得到,成为,到达

got(或   gotten

gird

束缚,佩戴,准备

girt   (或   girded

grind

磨碎,折磨

ground

hang

悬挂,暂停,吊死

hung

have

有,使得,从事

had

hear

听,听见,听说

heard 

heave

举起,起伏,呕吐

hove(或   heaved

hold

拥有,持有,保留

held

inlay

嵌入(镶入)

inlaid

keep

保持,遵守,

经营,饲养

kept

kneel 

下跪

knelt(或   kneeled

lay

躺,位于,放置,

产卵,打赌

laid

lead

引导,导致,带领

led

lean

倾斜,倚靠

leant(或   leaned

leap

跳跃,猛冲,猛涨,

突然做(某事)

leap(或pt.leapedpp.仍为原形)

learn  

学习,学会,了解到

learnt(或   learned

leave

留下,离开,遗忘

left

lend

借给,提供,贷款

lent

light

点燃,照亮

lit   (或lighted

lose

丢失,迷失,错过

lost

make

制造,做,使得,

成为,构成,制订

made

mean

意指,意味着,打算

meant

meet

满足,相遇,会面

met

outshine

更亮(更出色),

胜过,使相形见绌

outshone

pay

支付

paid

rend

撕去,撕碎,扯去,

分裂,强夺

rent【注:与规则动词原形rent(出租,租用,租借)同形,】

repay 

回报,偿还,

报答,报复

repaid

resell

转售,转卖

resold

resit

补考,重考

resat

retell

复述

retold

rewind

(影片、录音)倒带

rewound

say

说话

said

seek

寻找

sought

sell

出售

sold

send

发送

sent

shine

发光

shone(或shined

shoe

穿鞋,

给马钉蹄铁

shod(或pt.shoedpp.shodden

shoot

射击,射中,拍摄,

发芽,给注射,

shot

sit

坐,位于

sat

sleep

睡眠

slept

slide

滑动,滑行,不觉落入,贬值,衰落

slid

sling

抛掷,吊起,悬挂

slung

smell

嗅,闻,发出气味

察觉到

smelt(或smelled

speed

快速运动,加速

sped(或   speeded

spell

拼写

spelt   (或spelled

spend

花费,度过,

消磨(时光)

spent

spill

溢出,溅出

spilt(或spilled

spin

旋转,纺织,眩晕

spun   (或pt.   spanpp.spun

spit

吐出,发出,发射

spat(或spit

spoil

破坏,掠夺,溺爱

spoilt(或   spoiled

stand

站立,忍受,停滞

stood

stick

粘住,坚持

stuck

sting

刺,叮,蛰,使疼痛

stung

strike

打击,撞击,罢工

struck

sweep

清扫,横扫,席卷,

掠过,扫视

swept

swing

摇摆,回旋

swung

teach

教授,教导

taught

tell     

告诉,吩咐,辨别

told

think 

思考,想,认为

thought

understand

理解,懂得

understood

uphold

支撑,举起,赞成

upheld

waylay    

埋伏,拦截

waylaid

weep

哭泣,流泪,悲叹

wept

win    

赢,获胜,成功

won

wind

缠绕,蜿蜒,

上发条,吹号角

wound

withhold

阻挡,拒不给,克制

      withheld

withstand

抵挡,反抗,禁得起

withstood

wring

拧,绞,挤,扭,

使痛苦,折磨,歪曲

wrung

 

4-3-2-3)过去式与过去分词变化不同,如:

动词原形

基本词义

过去式

过去分词

arise

出现,上升

arose

arisen

awake

觉醒,意识到

awoke

(或awaked

awoken

(或awaked

be

was   / were

been

bear

承受,忍受

负担,生育

bore

born

beat

打,敲,击败

beat

beaten

become

成为,变得

became

become

befall

降临,发生

befell

befallen

beget

产生,引起

begot

begotten

begin

开始

began

begun

bid

命令,吩咐

出价,投标

bid

(或bade

bid

(或bidden

bite

咬,刺痛

bit

bitten

blow

吹,吹奏,

擤(鼻涕)

blew

blown

break

打破,违犯,

骨折,失灵

broke

broken

browbeat

恐吓,欺侮

browbeat

browbeaten

choose

选择

chose

chosen

come

came

come

chide

责骂,斥责

chid(或chided

chidden(或chided   / chid

dive

潜水,跳水,俯冲,暴跌

dovedived

dived

do

did

done

draw

拖,拉,画,

提取,排出

drew

drawn

drink

drank

drunk

drive

驾驶,驱赶

drove

driven

eat

ate

eaten

fall

降落,跌倒,下降,衰落

fell

fallen

fly

飞行,飘扬

flew

flown

forbid

禁止

forbade   forbad

forbadforbidden

forbear

克制,忍耐

forbore

forborne

forget

忘记,忽略

forgot

forgotten

forgive

原谅

forgave

forgiven

forgo

放弃,停止,

摒除,谢绝

forwent

forgone

forsake

遗弃,断念

forsook

forsaken

forswear

发虚假誓,

誓绝,弃绝

forswore

forsworn

freeze

冻结,凝固

froze

frozen

give

给予,付出,举办

gave

given

go

去,进行

went

gone

grow

成长,发展

grew

grown

hew

劈,砍,

开辟

hewed

hewnhewed

hide

隐瞒,隐藏

hid

hiddenhid

interweave

交织

interwove

interweaved

interwoven

interweaved

know

知道,懂得

knew

known

lie

躺,位于

lay

lain

【比较:lie

说谎

规则变化lied

规则变化lied

melt

(使)熔化

(使)溶解

melted

molten

melted

mistake

弄错,误解

mistook

mistaken

mow

割草,收割

mowed

mownmowed

outdo

超过,胜过

outdid

outdone

overbear

制服

overbore

overborn

overcome

克服,征服

overcame

overcome

overdo

做得过分,

表演过火

overdid

overdone

overdraw

透支,夸张

overdrew

overdrawn

override

无视,不顾

overrode

overridden

oversee

监督

oversaw

overseen

overtake

超车,追上

overtook

overtaken

overthrow

推翻,颠覆

overthrew

overthrown

partake

分享,参与

partook

partaken

prove

证明

proved

provenproved

redo

重做

redid

redone

rerun

重新播放

reran

rerun

retake

补考,重拍

retook

retaken

ride

骑,乘坐,

驾驭

rode

ridden

ring

打电话,

响起铃声

rang

rung

rise

升起,增加

rose

risen

run

奔跑,运行

ran

run

saw

割锯

sawed

sawnsawed

see

看见,领会

saw

seen

sew

缝纫,缝合

sewed

sewnsewed

shake

抖动,握手,动摇

shook

shaken

shear

剪切,修剪,

骗取

sheared   

shorn(sheared)

show

显示,炫耀

showed

shown(showed)

shrink

收缩,畏缩

shrank

shrunk

sing

歌唱

sang

sung

sink

下沉

sank

sunk

slay

屠杀,谋杀

slew

slain

smite

打,重击

smote

smitten

sow

播种,散播

sowed

sownsowed

speak

说话

spoke

spoken

spring

跳,涌现

sprang

sprung

steal

偷窃

stole

stolen

strew

散播,点缀

strewed

strewn(strewed)

stride 

迈进,跨越

strode

stridden

strive 

努力,奋斗

strovestrived

strivenstrived

swear

发誓,咒骂

swore

sworn

swell

膨胀

swelled

swollen

swim

游泳

swam

swum

take

拿取,花费

took

taken

tear

撕碎,流泪

tore  

torn

throw

扔,摔,投射

threw

thrown

tread

走,踏,踩

trod

troddentrod

undergo

经历,遭受

underwent

undergone

underlie

位于下,构成的基础

underlay

underlain

undertake

担任,承担,着手,企图

undertook

undertaken

underwrite

签署  

underwrote

underwritten

undo

取消,撤销

解开,扰乱

undid

undone

unfreeze

解冻,

取消限制

unfroze

unfrozen

wake

叫醒,醒来,

激发,警觉

wokewaked

wokenwaked

wear

穿戴  

wore

worn

weave

编织

wove

woven

withdraw

收回,提取,撤退,离开,

取钱,撤销

withdrew

withdrawn

write

wrote

written

 

3)常见几组动词的区别

1accept / receive

accept (vt.) 接受,答应,承认,认为是(表接受时是指经过慎重考虑后的主观上的接受或领受,如:He accepted the criticism from the teacher. 他接受了老师的批评。)

receive (vt.) 收到,接受,接待,承受,容纳(表接受时是指客观上的事实,不涉及主观上是否愿意。如:He received a good education. 他受过良好的教育。He received a letter from her. 他收到了她的一封信。)

2accomplish / complete / finish

accomplish (vt.) 完成,取得成就(后不接所完成的具体事物的名词,可后接task(任务), aim(目标), mission(使命)等抽象性质的名词,即accomplish 所指完成的事不如complete更具体,如:We accomplished the mission. 我们完成了这项使命。);

complete (vt.) 完成,结束,使完整(后不可接动名词,正式用语,表完成工程、写作、事业等之意。如:Builders have completed the house. 建筑工人已经建成了这座房子。They completed the journey. 他们结束了旅行。I completed a book.我写完了一本书。);

finish (vi. & vt.) 完成,完毕,结束(可后接动名词,如:I finished reading a book. 我看完了一本书。I finished a book. 我看完了一本书。I finished writing a book. 我写完了一本书。)

3afford / provide / supply / offer / give

afford (vt.) 负担得起(费用、损失等),提供,给予(“向某人提供某物”的双宾语句型:afford sb. sth.,其中的sth.常为抽象名词。如:Travel affords us pleasure.旅行常给我们带来快乐。)

provide (vt.) 提供,装备(句型:provide sb. with sth.provide sth. for/to sb.如:They provided us with board and lodging. 他们给我们提供食宿。)② (vi.) 提供生计(for),作准备(for),规定(for),预防(against(如:Who provides for her? 谁为她提供生活费?)

supply (vt.) 提供(后接宾语的句型:supply sb. with sth. supply sth. to/for sb.。如: They supplied us with board and lodging. 他们给我们提供食宿。不用简单双宾语句型:supply sb. sth. 即不说“They supplied us board and lodging”);满足,填补,替代,供应(如:He supplied the place of Teacher Wang. 他替王老师代课。Coal is supplied according to the number of persons. 按人数供应煤。);

offer (vt.) 提供,贡献,出售,出(价)(作“提供”之意时有“主动”涵义,可后接动词不定式短语、双宾语、复合宾语,但一般不不后接从句。如:He offer to help me. / He offers me his help. 他主动提出要帮我。She offered a few ideas to improve the plan. 她提出几种想法来改进计划。);

give (vi.) 捐赠,退让,(冰雪)融化(vt.) 给予,付出,托付,举办

【比较:offergive都有“给”之意,但offer表主动提供的“给”,但对方未必已接受;give表“给”且已接受。如:He gave his life to the country. 他把一生献给了祖国。He offered his life to the country. 他表示要把一生献给祖国。】)

4adopt / adapt

adopt (vt.)——采纳adapt (vt.) 使适应,改编,改写

5affect / effect

affect (vt.) (使受)影响,感动,(疾病)侵袭

effect (vt.) 招致,引起,达到,实现;【另外还可作名词 (n.) 结果,效力,影响,效应,作用;】

6answer / reply

answer (vt.) 回答(后接单宾语或双宾语或宾语从句);

reply (vi.) 答复【注:①不接宾语,或后接介词to+宾语,表“答复某人或某问题”;②或后接介词for+宾语,表“代表致答词”);③(vt.) 回答(后接宾语从句或saying that…,如: He replied (saying) that he knew nothing about it. 他回答说他什么都不知道。④另外还可作名词 (n.)答复,回答】;

7arise/ rise / raise

arise (vi.) 起来,升起,出现,由产生/造成(from(如: I arise with the lark. 我起得很早。(在此,lark意为云雀),再如:His illness arose partly from want of food. 他的病有几分是由于缺少食物造成的。)

rise (vi) 起立,起来,上升,增强,起源The river rises in the mountains. 这条河发源于群山之中。The quarrel rose from a mere trifle. 这场争吵本源于琐事一件。);

【比较:ariserise都有“升起、起床”之意,但arise是古体,仅在诗歌中出现,现代英语已很少用于“起床”(现代英语特别是口语的“起床”都用get up),主要用于借喻“出现、发生”;而rise是较为正式的用语,现在也多用于借喻“升起”。】;

raise (vt.) 举起,扶起,使升高,提高,提出(问题),激起,养育,种植A tossed stone raises a thousand ripples. 一石激起千层浪。)

8arrive / get / reach

   arrive (vi.) 到达(不接宾语,或后接介词in/at+宾语),达到,得出,获得(如:arrive at a conclusion得出结论;arrive at full age达到成年; arrive at success/an idea获得成功/想法);

   get (vi.) 到达(口语,后接介词to+宾语);

   reach (vt.) 到达(后接宾语)

9break / burst / crack / smash

   break (vt.) 打破/弄碎(猛然用力的打破或弄碎,可用于一切有形或无形物体),损坏,破坏,违反(vi.) 破碎,断裂,(天)破晓

burst (vi.) 炸裂(指物体内部张力引起冲破封闭状态的破裂);(vt.) 使破裂(如:They burst the door open. 他们冲/撞开了门。)

crack (vt.) 弄破,使破裂,使爆裂,敲破,砸破(“crack即弄破”一件器物,但不一定就彻底“打碎即break”了),打响(vi.) 皲裂,开裂,劈里啪啦作响

smash (vt.) 使粉碎,使瓦解,击败,打破(记录)(vi.) 打碎,摔碎(指完全打成粉碎,动作猛烈并带有声响,其语气要比break更强烈);

10bring / take / fetch / carry

   bring (vt.) 带来(表示从别处把某物或某人带到说话者处);带着(如:May I bring you home? 我可以带你回家吗?又如:What brings you here today?今天是什么风把你给吹来的呀?);拿来(如:Bring me a cup of tea. 给我拿杯茶来。);致使(如:Haste doesn’t bring success. 欲速则不达。);

take (vt.) 拿,带走,取走(表示把某物从说话者处带走/取走);抓,握,吃,喝,花费,使用,搭乘,拍(照),获得,患(病),以为(vi.) 奏效,有效

fetch (vt.) 去拿来,去取来,去接来(表示去某地把某人或某物拿来/取来/接来到说话者处,如:Fetch me a chair. 去给我拿把椅子来。),引起;

carry (vt.) 携带(表示用人力或交通工具把某物或某人从一处带到另一处,本身不涉及动作方向即不表“来”或是“去”);(vi.) 携带,运送,达及(如:His voice will carry to the back of the house. 他的声音都可以传到房屋后面。)

11 cost / spend

   cost (vt.) 价值(钱数),价格是,(如:The book costs 3 yuan. 这本书价值3块钱人民币。);花费(时间,劳力。通常其主语是事物,其后可接双宾语。如:The work cost them much time/labor. 这项工作花费了他们大量的时间/劳力。);带来造成//产生/引起(不良后果)(如:The boy’s bad behavior cost his mother many sleepless nights. 这男孩儿的不良行为造成了他母亲的许多不眠之夜。);使丧生(如:The accident cost the man his life. 这次事故使一名男子丧生。);

spend (vt.) 度过(如:How did you spend your holidays? 你是如何度假的?);花费(金钱,时间。通常其主语是人或事物,其后可接单宾语或双宾语或复合宾语。// 后接单宾语(如: They had to spend more materials. 他们不得不花费更多的材料。// 后接双宾语(如:This vase cost him five dollars. 这个花瓶花了他5美元。It cost him a great deal of trouble. 这费了他许多事。)// 后接复合宾语(如:I usually spend half an hour (in/on) reading English in the morning. 我每天早晨花半小时读英语。)

12damage / destroy / spoil / ruin

damage (vt. & vi.) 损坏,损害,毁坏(是指从局部对整体的影响来看的部分损坏而造成价值或效率降低,可表对有形或无形资产如名誉等的损坏);

destroy (vt.) 破坏,毁坏,消灭(是指不可修复的破坏/毁灭。如:Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. 能量既不能创造也不能毁灭。)

spoil (vt.) 损坏/破坏(是指物体在美观、用途、价值等封面的损坏、糟蹋,是从整体来看);姑息,宠坏(vi.) 变坏,腐烂

ruin (vt.) 毁灭,崩溃,损坏(是指一般的弄坏,多用于借喻如“破产,损坏健康”等;【另外还可作名词 (n.) 毁灭,崩溃,废墟/遗迹(常用pl.)】)

13dress / wear

dress (vt.) 打扮,给穿衣是指给穿上衣服,如:Dress yourself more neatly. 打扮/穿得整洁点儿!);装饰,处理,整理(vi.) 穿衣,[]看齐(如:Right dress! 向右看 齐!);【另外还可作名词(n.) 女装,童装】);

wear (vt.) 穿,戴(是指穿着,戴着。如:She wears a pair of glasses at times. 她有时戴眼镜。She wears a full dress sometimes. 她有时穿大礼服。);(vi.) 耐穿,耐磨(如:This cloth wears well/badly. 这布料耐磨/不耐磨。)

14feel / fall / fell

feel (vi. & vt.) 摸起来,感觉,触摸(不规则动词,过去式与过去分词均为felt

fall (vi.) 降下,倒下,降临,落下(不规则动词,过去式与过去分词分别为fellfallen);【另外可作名词 (n.) 落下,降落,跌落,堕落,消亡】);

fell (vt.) 打倒,砍伐(规则动词,过去式与过去分词均为felled

15lend / borrow

lend (vi. & vt.) 提供,给予,借出(是指将某物向外借出给某人);

borrow (vi. & vt.) 借,借用,借入(是指从某处借入某物)(如: Many people never borrow or lend. 许多人既不借入也不借出。)

16lie / lay

lie (vi.) 躺,平放,保持(状态),位于(是不规则动词,过去式与过去分词分别为laylain,现在分词是lying);② 说谎(是规则动词,过去式与过去分词均为lied,现在分词是lying)③ (n.) 位置,状态,谎言;

lay (vt.) 放置(不规则动词,过去式与过去分词均为laid,现在分词是laying),摆放,搁置,铺砌,安排,布置,拟定(计划),提起,提出,征收,施加,归(罪),打倒,消除,置后接复合宾语,如:lay the land waste荒废土地,lay one’s heart bare自我暴露,Influenza has laid him low. 流感使他病倒了。② (vi. & vt.)下(蛋),如:Hens lay eggs. 母鸡下蛋。The old hen will not lay. 老母鸡不下蛋。),下(赌注)(如:lay a wager下赌注),打赌(如:I’ll lay you a bet.我要和你打赌。I lay 5 yuan that he will not come. 我赌5块钱,他肯定不会来。)

17look / see

look (vi.) (强调“看”的动作,后接不同的介词at/for/around+宾语,则有不同的词义。如:look at看看,看着;look for寻找;look around环顾四周;等。)

see (vi. & vt.)看见,看到(不规则动词,过去式与过去分词分别为sawseen);强调“看见”的结果,如:He can see nothing. 他什么也看不见。);明白,了解,知悉(如:To see is to believe. 眼见为实。Let me see. 让我想想。I see. 我明白了。)

18make / do

make (vt.)【强调所制做出的实体结果】制造,制做(不规则动词,过去式与过去分词均为made;后接不同的介词则有不同的表意,如: make…into做成make…out of/),②使成为(后接a+名词+of+名词/代词,如:make a teacher of me使我成为教师)③常用被动语态,如:be made up of组成(如:Matter is made up of atoms. 物质由原子组成。);be made (out) of(某种材料,性质不变,原材料可见)制成(如:The bridge is made (out) of stone. 这座桥是由石头建造的。);be made from(某种材料,性质改变,原材料看不出来了)制成(如:The kind of wine is made from grapes. 这种酒是由葡萄酿制成的。);be made with(两种以上原材料)合成(如:The cake is made with eggs and milk and so on. 这蛋糕是用鸡蛋、牛奶等做的。);be made into被制成(如:Flour is made into bread. 面粉被做成面包。【比较:Bread is made from flour. 面包是由面粉做成的。】);be made in产于(如:This machines are made in Chine. 这台机器产于中国/是中国造的。)

do (vt.) 做,干(不规则动词,过去式与过去分词分别为diddone,第三人称单数为does。强调所作出的行为,如:What do you do now? 你在干什么? The students have done their homework. 学生们做完了作业。)

19occur to / happen to / take place / break out

occur to sb. 使某人想出(如:An idea occurred to me. 我心生一计。);

happen to sb./sth. 某人或某物发生了某情况(如:What has happened to the man? 那人怎么了?/ 那人什么情况?);

take place发生(相当于不及物动词,不后接宾语,不用被动语态。如:Great changes have taken place in the factory. 这个工厂发生了很大的变化。【不说“The factory has taken place great changes.Great changes have been taken place in the factory.】)

break out爆发(相当于不及物动词,不后接宾语,不用被动语态。如World War I broke out in 1914.第一次世界大战爆发于1914年。不说“World War I was broken out in 1914.”)

20need / require

need (vt.) 需要(指客观需要,如:Doctors often need to ask their patients about health in the past. 医生常需要询问病人的既往健康状况。);

require (vt.) 需要(指主观需要,= ask for。如:We require extra help. 我们需要额外的帮助。)

21seat / sit / stay

seat (vt.) 使就座,有座位,可容纳(如:Please seat yourself. / Please be seated. 请就座。Our auditorium can seat 2000 people. 我们的礼堂可坐2000人。)

sit (vi.) 坐,位于,放,(衣服)合身,(家禽)孵卵(如:Please sit down. 请坐。)

stay (vi. & vt.) 逗留,继续,暂住,处于(如:She stayed at her friend’s house. 她暂住在朋友家。The shop stays open till 8 o'clock in the evening. 商店开门到晚8点。)

辨析sit upstay up都有“熬夜”之意,通常在stay upsit up后接现在分词或其短语作为“熬夜”的伴随动作,而在sit up后接with sb. 作为“熬夜”的陪伴者。比较He stayed/sat up listening to the midnight news on the radio. 他一直熬夜从收音机里收听午夜新闻。He sat up all night with his sick child. 他熬了一整夜,陪着生病的孩子。】

22speak / say /tell / talk

speak (vi.) 说话(若表说话内容,则须后接介词of/about+宾语;若表对说则需后接介词to);

say (vi. & vt.) 说,讲,写道(侧重于表达所说的话即其后的宾语,如:Say what you think. 把想说的说出来。It says in the Bible that…/The Bible says that…圣经上写道);

tell (vt.) 告诉,讲述(可后接单宾语或双宾语,如:He always tells a lie. 他总是撒谎。【比较:不说“He always says a lie.”】)

23win / defeat

   win (vi.) 获胜;(vt.) 赢得(某物)(如:We won that game (a prize) 我们赢了那场比赛/获奖了。【不说:We won them.】若要表示“我们赢了他们”,要用defeat,见下一例句);

defeat (vt.) 击败(如:We defeated them in the game. 我们在比赛中击败了他们/赢了他们。)

 

参考文献

1. 薄冰,何政安. Bo Bing English Grammar薄冰英语语法(袖珍本)北京:开明出版社,2007

2. 张道真,朱从军张道真英语语法长春:吉林出版集团有限公司,2013

3. 胡敏 主编(新航道图书编委会)英语语法红宝书(English Grammar北京:中国出版传媒股份有限公司,中国对外翻译出版有限公司,2011

4. 外研社编辑组现代汉英词典北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1988

5. 朗文当代英汉双解词典香港:朗文出版(远东)有限公司,1988

6. 张其春,蔡文萦简明英汉词典北京:商务印书馆, 1963

7. 吉玲,杨艳梅 汉英双解成语词典北京:商务印书馆, 2005

8. 陈宗余简明英语同义词词典济南:山东教育出版社,1984

9. Frederick T Wood. 余士雄,余前文 . English Prepositional Idioms英语介词习语词典北京知识出版社, 1983

 

(待续)

 

 

 

 



http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3389947-1197753.html

上一篇:Self-driven words of scientific researchers
下一篇:[转载]News from Science-31

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (1 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备14006957 )

GMT+8, 2019-9-20 18:27

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部