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《寒旱区科学》2020年第2期中英双语摘要

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0059−0070  Thermal influence of ponding and buried warm-oil pipelines on permafrost: a case study of the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline … YanHu Mu, MingTang Chai, GuoYu Li, Wei Ma, Fei Wang, YaPeng Cao

Abstract:  Buried pipelines are widely used for transporting oil in remote cold regions. However, the warm oil can induce considerable thermal influence on the surrounding frozen soils and result in severe maintenance problems. This paper presents a case study of the thermal influence of ponding and buried warm-oil pipelines on permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) in Northeast China. Since its operation in 2011, the operation of the warm-oil pipelines has led to rapid warming and thawing of the surrounding permafrost and development of sizable ponding along the pipeline route, which, in return, exacerbates the permafrost degradation. A field study was conducted along a 400-km long segment of the CRCOP in permafrost regions of Northeast China to collect the location and size information of ponding. A two-dimensional heat transfer model coupled with phase change was established to analyze the thermal influence of ponding and the operation of warm-oil pipelines on the surrounding permafrost. In-situ measured ground temperatures from a monitoring site were obtained to validate the numerical model. The simulation results show that ponding accelerates the development of the thaw bulb around the pipeline. The maximum thaw depth below the pipeline increases from 4 m for the case without

ponding to 9 m for the case with ponding after 50 years of operation, and ponding directly above the pipe induces the maximum thaw depth. Engineering measures should be adopted to control the size or even eliminate surface water-rich ponding for the long-term performance of buried warm-oil pipelines.

埋地管道油温和积水对多年冻土的热影响-以中俄原油管道为例  穆彦虎,柴明堂,李国玉,马巍,王飞,曹亚鹏

在多年冻土区,通常采用埋地管道来进行油料运输,然而,高油温将对管道周围的多年冻土产生明显热扰动,给管道运营维护带来困扰。针对中俄原油管道,本文开展了埋地管道油温和积水共同作用对多年冻土的热影响研究。自从2011年管道运营以来,正温输油使得管道周围的多年冻土迅速升温甚至融化,同时在管道沿线产生了诸多地表积水病害,积水将加速多年冻土的退化。本文通过对多年冻土区管道沿线400km区段的现场调查,首次获取了管道沿线积水的位置和面积信息。建立了考虑相变的二维热传导模型来分析积水和高油温共同作用下对管道周围多年冻土的热影响,以现场监测方式获取的地温数据来验证模型计算结果。计算结果表明,积水的存在加速了管道周围融化圈的发展,在无积水存在时,在正温输油条件下,运营50年后管道下部最大融化深度从4m增大至9m。各种形式的积水中,管道顶部积水的融化深度最大。因此,为了确保埋地管道的长期稳定运营,应采取相应的治理措施来控制积水规模或消除积水,以降低积水对管道周围多年冻土热状况的不利影响。


0071–0082  Estimating interaction between surface water and groundwater in a permafrost region of the northern Tibetan Plateau using heat tracing method … TanGuang Gao, Jie Liu, TingJun Zhang, ShiChang Kang, ChuanKun Liu, ShuFa Wang, Mika Sillanpää, YuLan Zhang 

Abstract: Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water in permafrost regions is essential to study flood frequencies and river water quality, especially in the high latitude/altitude basins. The application of heat tracing method, based on oscillating streambed temperature signals, is a promising geophysical method for identifying and quantifying the interaction between groundwater and surface water. Analytical analysis based on a one-dimensional convective-conductive heat transport equation combined with the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing method was applied on a streambed of a mountainous permafrost region in the Yeniugou Basin, located in the upper Heihe River on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that low connectivity existed between the stream and groundwater in permafrost regions. The interaction between surface water and groundwater increased with the thawing of the active layer. This study demonstrates that the heat tracing method can be applied to study surface water-groundwater interaction over temporal and spatial scales in permafrost regions.

利用热传导方法对青藏高原北部多年冻土区地表水与地下水相互作用的评估  高坛光,刘杰,张廷军, 康世昌, 刘传坤, 王树发, Mika Sillanpää, 张玉兰

对冻土地区地表水和地下水水力联系的认识有助于提升对寒区水文过程的理解。多年冻土区地下水与地表水的相互作用对于研究高纬度/高海拔流域的洪水频率和河流水质具有重要意义。本文以青藏高原北部黑河上游西支多年冻土区河床为例,采用一维热量传导方程结合光纤分布式温度传感方法进行分析,结果显示多年冻土区河流与地下水的连通性较差。地表水与地下水的相互作用随着活动层的融化而增强,同时证明该方法可以有效的在连续时间系列上反应地表水与地下水相互作用及强度。

00830094  Quantitative estimation of the influence factors on snow/ice albedo … ZhongMing Guo, NingLian Wang, BaoShou Shen, ZhuJun Gu, HongBo Wu, YuWei Wu, AnAn Chen, Xi Jiang

Abstract: Quantitative estimation of the influence of various factors, such as black carbon, snow grain, dust content, and water content on albedo is essential in obtaining an accurate albedo. In this paper, field measurement data, including snow grain size, density, liquid water content, and snow depth was obtained. Black carbon and dust samples were collected from the snow surface. A simultaneous observation using ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices) spectral data was employed in the Qiyi glacier located on Qilian Mountain. The measurements were compared with results obtained from the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model. Additionally, a HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) air mass backward trajectory model was used to track the source of black carbon. The simulation was found to correlate well with observed data. Liquid water content was the most influential factor of albedo among the several influencing factors, followed by black carbon content and snow grain size. Finally, snow density change had the least toward albedo. HYSPLIT atmospheric trajectories model can only approximately show the source of black carbon and not clearly indicate the source region of black carbon.

冰雪反照率影响因素的定量估计  郭忠明, 王宁练, 申保收, 顾祝军, 吴红波, 吴玉伟, 陈安安, 蒋熹

定量估计如黑碳、雪粒径、粉尘含量和含水量等诸多因子对反照率的影响是获取精确反照率的关键。本研究在七一冰川实测了雪粒径、雪密度、液态含水量和雪深等数据。采集了表层雪样用来分析黑碳和粉尘含量。利用ASD光谱仪进行了同步光谱观测。测量结果与Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR)模型模拟结果进行了比较。采用HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT)气团后向轨迹模型追踪了黑碳来源。研究结果表明,模拟结果与观测结果一致性较好。在诸多影响因素中,液态含水量是影响反照率的最主要因素,其次是黑碳含量和雪粒径大小,雪密度变化对反照率的影响最小。研究表明HYSPLIT大气轨迹模型只能近似地显示黑碳的来源,而不能准确地指示黑碳的源区。


0095–0103  Spatial and temporal transferability of Degree-Day Model and Simplified Energy Balance Model: a case study … HuiLin Li 

Abstract: Glacier mass balance, the difference between accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface, is the direct reflection of the local climate regime. Under global warming, the simulation of glacier mass balance at the regional scale has attracted increasing interests. This study selects Urumqi Glacier No. 1 as the testbed for examining the transferability in space and time of two commonly used glacier mass balance simulation models: i.e., the Degree-Day Model (DDM) and the simplified Energy Balance Model (sEBM). Four experiments were carried out for assessing both models' temporal and spatial transferability. The results show that the spatial transferability of both the DDM and sEBM is strong, whereas the temporal transferability of the DDM is relatively weak. For all four experiments, the overall simulation effect of the sEBM is better than that of the DDM. At the zone around Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA), the DDM performed better than the sEBM. Also, the accuracy of parameters, including the lapse rate of air temperature and vertical gradient of precipitation at the glacier surface, is of great significance for improving the spatial transferability of both models.

度日模型与能量平衡模型的时空可迁移性研究  李慧林

冰川物质平衡是冰川表面积累与消融的差值,是对局地气候状况最直接与瞬时的反映。全球变暖背景下,区域尺度的冰川物质平衡模拟研究成为热点。本文以乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川(简称“1号冰川)为实验对象,对两种适用于区域尺度的物质平衡模型度日模型(DDM简化型能量平衡模型(sEBM在时间与空间上的可迁移性进行分析。结果表明,在实验所设定条件下,DDMsEBM的空间可迁移性均较强,而DDM的时间可迁移性较弱。模拟效果方面,SEBM整体优于DDM;仅在模拟零平衡线附近的物质平衡时,DDM产生的误差很可能小于SEBM。另外,冰川表面气温直减率与降水垂直梯度取值的准确性,对提升两种模型的空间可迁移性均具重要意义。


0104–0118  The heterogeneity of hydrometeorological changes during the period of 1961−2016 in the source region of the Yellow River, China … ZhiXiang Lu, Qi Feng, SongBing Zou, JiaLi Xie, ZhenLiang Yin, Fang Li 

Abstract: Runoff in the source region of a river makes up most of water resources in the whole basin in arid and semi-arid areas. It is very important for water resources management to timely master the latest dynamic changes of the runoff and quantitatively reveal its main driving factors. This paper aims to discover the variation heterogeneity of runoff and the impacts of climatic factors on this runoff in the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) in China from 1961 to 2016. We divided SRYR into four sub-regions, and analyzed changes of their contributions to total runoff in SRYR. We also revealed the impacts of precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration on runoff in each sub-region by constructing the regression relationships between them at multiple temporal scales. The changes of runoff in the four sub-regions and their contributions to the total runoff were not exactly consistent. The climatic variables' changes also have heterogeneity, and runoff was mainly affected by precipitation compared to influences of temperature or potential evapotranspiration. Their impacts on runoff have spatiotemporal heterogeneity and can be reflected by very significant-linear regression equations. It provided a simple method to predict headwater runoff for better water management in the whole basin.

1961-2016年黄河源区水文气候变化的异质性特征  陆志翔,冯起,邹松兵,谢家丽,尹振良,李芳

干旱与半干旱区的河流源区径流是整个流域水资源的主要组成部分,及时掌握源区径流的动态变化,定量揭示其主要气候驱动因素对流域水资源管理十分重要。本文旨在揭示1961-2016年我国黄河源区(唐乃亥水文站以上区域)径流变化及其气候影响的异质性特征。基于干流的水文台站将黄河源区划分为4个亚区,分析其对区域总径流量的贡献变化;在多个时间尺度上,建立降水、温度与潜在蒸散量和径流的回归关系,揭示了降水、温度和潜在蒸散量对各亚区径流的影响。结果表明四个亚区的径流变化及其对区域总径流的贡献变化过程并不完全一致,气候因素的变化也具有异质性;与气温和潜在蒸散发相比,降水量对径流的影响更大,它们对径流的影响可用显著线性回归方程表达,且具有时空异质性。本研究为黄河源区的径流变化分析与预测提供了一种简便的方法。


0119–0124  Distribution patterns of planted-shrubs of different restoration ages in artificial sand-fixing regions in the southeastern Tengger Desert … MeiLing Liu, Ning Chen, RuiQing Zhu 

Abstract: Plant density and spatial distribution in artificial vegetation is obviously initialized at the planting stage. Plant dynamics and spatial pattern may change over time as the result of interactions between individual plants and habitats, but whether it's applied for desert shrubs in artificial sand-fixing regions remains unknown. Here we examined changes in plant density and distribution patterns of three shrubs (Artemisia ordosica Krasch, Caragana korshinskii Kom, and Hedysarum scoparium Fisch.) in different regions, which have been restored for 27, 32 and 50 years (R27, R32, R50), respectively. The vegetation analysis shows that A. ordosica was the dominated species across the 3 restoration regions. The density of A. ordosica and H. scoparium show a significant increase from R27 to R32, then decreased in R50. The density of C. korshinskii

was low in R32 and R50, lower in R27. The variance-to-mean ratio (VMR) was used to characterize spatial distribution patterns to fit the observed densities of the three shrubs by frequency. A. ordosica and C. korshinskii both show significantly clumped distributions in three restoration regions. H. scoparium show a uniform distribution in R27 and R50, but a clumped distribution in R32. These results show that A. ordosica seems to be more adaptable in revegetated desert areas compared to C. korshinskii and H. scoparium. Pattern analysis suggests a successive replacement of C. korshinskii, which had low proportions of survived shrubs, by the dominant A. ordosica. This study contributes to the understanding of the distribution patterns of shrubs plants in revegetation projects in arid desert areas.

腾格里沙漠东南缘不同恢复年限人工固沙区的植被分布模式  刘美玲,陈宁,朱瑞清

人工植被区的植物密度及空间分布在种植阶段被显著初始化,然而在植物个体间及与环境的相互作用下,群落动态及分布模式随时间发生改变。在人工固沙植被区,基于长期稳定监测条件下,关于植被分布模式及其植被演替规律的研究还相对较少。本研究中,我们以分别建立于196419821987年的三个不同恢复年限(即分别恢复273250年)的人工固沙区为样地,测定了三种灌木柠条(Caragana korshinskii Kom.),油蒿(Artemisia ordosica Krasch.),花棒(Hedysarum scoparium Fisch.)的种群数量、冠幅、密度,并分析了不同种群的植被分布模式。植被调查结果显示,油蒿在3个植被恢复区中的密度最高,均为显著优势种。随着恢复年限的增加,油蒿和花棒的密度呈现出先增加后降低的趋势。花棒的密度相对较低,甚至在1987年样地中全部死亡。分布模式分析显示,油蒿和柠条在3个植被恢复区中均显著聚集分布;而花棒在1987年和1964年样地中呈现均匀分布,而在1982年样地为聚集分布。本研究表明,与柠条和花棒相比,油蒿为更适合用于干旱荒漠区生态修复的植物物种,因此该人工固沙区逐渐演变为以油蒿为优势物种的植被分布格局。本研究有助于理解人工固沙区植被的分布模式,为干旱区植被管理提供了理论支持。



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