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《寒旱区科学》2019年第四期中英双语摘要

已有 91 次阅读 2019-10-21 09:46 |系统分类:论文交流

0257−0266  Influence of frost weathering on the recession of surfaces of technogenic landforms in Yakutia … Andrey E. Melnikov, Nikolay N. Grib

Abstract: The article assesses the influence of permafrost weathering on the rate of destruction of technogenic land forms, as exhibited on as illustrated by the railway embankment of the Amur Yakut mainline in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Studies were carried out on a railway section more than 375 km long. The subsidence rate of the embankment slopes and structural excavations was determined using laboratory methods that simulate various mechanisms of temperature (with a transition through 0 °C) impact on rocks. For the first time, a quantitative assessment of the influence of cryogenic weathering on the stability of the railway in the region belonging to the northern buildingclimatic zone is given. For the territory under consideration, embankment rocks were experimentally determined to undergo more than 100 freezing and thawing cycles during a year. Under the existing climatic conditions, cryogenic weathering actively affects the embankment of the railway to a depth of 30 cm. Most of the embankment deformations detected during field observations are due to defects in the integrity of this particular layer. The size of the disintegrating layer of particular types of rock comprising the railway embankment has been established as reaching 10 cm per year. In 5 years following the formation of embankments comprising the upper structure of the railroad tracks, the physical and mechanical properties of rocks, which initially had a tensile strength for uniaxial compression in the range of 4070 MPa, were reduced by more than 50%. According to the authors, the establishment of regional cryohypergenesis features is universal in nature and can be applied to solving a wide range of tasks related to the assessment and prediction of the degree of cryogenic transformation of rocks having different structural properties.

 

02670282  A paleo-hydrological simulation experiment and its verification in an inland basinYuXin Zhang, Yu Li, XinZhong Zhang, ChengQi Zhang, WangTing Ye, Yuan Liu 

Abstract: Hydrological circulation, as the most basic material cycle and active natural phenomenon on earth, exerts a significant influence on climate change. The mid-Holocene is an important period to better understand modern environmental change; however, little research has focused on its quantitative simulation of paleo-hydrological process. In this research, we first collected chronological evidence and sediment records from six Holocene sedimentary sections in the Shiyang River Basin to reconstruct the mid-Holocene environment and terminal paleo-lake area. Secondly, we comprehensively analyzed modern pollen combinations and their propagation characteristics in surface soil, air, river and lacustrine sediments in the Shiyang River Basin, and combined the pollen records, as well as quantitatively reconstructed the millennial-scale vegetation zones. Finally, based on the land-cover adjustment results during the mid-Holocene, we successfully used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, a modern distributed hydrological watershed model, to simulate mid-Holocene runoff in the basin. Results show that the reconstructed climate in the basin was warmer and moister than that in recent times. Vegetation types in the mid-Holocene mainly consisted of sub-alpine shrub distributed between 2,550 m and 2,750 m, forest at an elevation of 2,5502,750 m, steppe at an elevation of 1,5502,150 m and desert steppe below 1,550 m. The upstream, midstream, downstream and average annual runoff of the mid-Holocene in the basin were 16.76×108 m3, 22.86×108 m3, 9.00×108 m3 and 16.20×108 m3 respectively, compared to 15.61×108 m3 of modern annual runoff. Also, the area of terminal paleo-lake in the mid-Holocene was 628 km2. Thus, this study provides a new quantitative method for paleo-hydrological simulation. 

石羊河流域古水文模拟及其验证  张宇欣,李育,张新中,张成琦,叶旺庭,刘媛

水循环作为地球上最基本的物质循环和最活跃的自然现象,对气候变化有着重要的影响。中全新世是全新世时期的一个重要阶段,研究中全新世气候变化有利于更好地理解现代的环境变化。但是,已有研究多使用定性的方法重建古水文过程,而定量模拟古水文过程的研究较少。本文使用石羊河流域6个全新世沉积剖面的年代证据和沉积记录重建了中全新世石羊河流域的气候环境和终端古湖泊面积。其次,综合分析了石羊河流域现代花粉组合及其在表层土壤、大气、河流和湖泊沉积物中的传播特征,并结合花粉记录,定量重建了石羊河流域千年尺度的植被带。最后,基于调整后的中全新世石羊河流域土地覆被结果,利用现代分布式水文流域模型(SWAT模型)模拟了石羊河流域中全新世的古径流量。结果表明,石羊河流域在中全新世呈现出暖湿的气候特征;中全新世石羊河流域的植被类型主要包括2750~3150 m的亚高山灌丛植被带、2550~2750 m的森林植被带、1550~2150 m的山前草原植被带、1550 m以下的荒漠草原植被带;中全新世石羊河流域上游、中游、下游及年平均径流量分别为16.76×108, 22.86×108, 9.00×108 16.20×108 m3,现代年均径流量为15.61×108 m3;此外重建的中全新世石羊河终端古湖泊面积为628 km2。本文为内流河流域的古气候重建及古水文模拟提供了一种新的方法。

                                               

0283−0294  Comparative study of surface energy and land-surface parameters in different climate zones in Northwest China … JiaXi Yang, ZhenChao Li, Ye Yu, ZhiYuan Zheng, XuHong Hou, XiaoQing Gao 

Abstract: Based on observational data of arid, semi-arid and semi-humid areas in Northwest China, the characteristics of surface-water heat transfer and land-surface parameters were compared and analyzed. The results show that the annual mean net radiation was largest in the semi-humid area, followed by the semi-arid area, and then the arid area: 77.72 W/m2, 67.73 W/m2, and 55.47 W/m2, respectively. The annual mean sensible heat flux was largest in the arid area, followed by the semi-arid and semi-humid areas, while latent heat flux showed the reverse. The annual mean sensible heat flux in arid, semi-arid, and semi-humid areas was 85.7 W/m2, 37.59 W/m2, and 27.55 W/m2, respectively. The annual mean latent heat flux was 0 W/m2, 26.08 W/m2, and 51.19 W/m2, respectively. The annual mean soil-heat flux at the 5-cm soil layer in arid, semi-arid, and semi-humid areas was 1.00 W/m2, 0.82 W/m2, and 1.25 W/m2, respectively. The annual mean surface albedo was largest in the arid area, followed by the semi-humid area; and the smallest was in the semi-arid area: 0.24, 0.21, and 0.18, respectively. The annual mean Bowen ratio in the semi-arid area was about 2.06, and that in semi-humid area was about 0.03. The annual mean soil thermal conductivity in the arid, semi-arid, and semi-humid areas was 0.26 W/(mk), 1.15 W/(mk), and 1.20 W/(mk), respectively. 

中国西北不同气候区地表能量与陆面参数对比研究  杨佳希,李振朝,余烨,郑志远,侯旭宏,高晓清

本文利用中国西北干旱区、半干旱区、半湿润区的观测资料,对比分析三个地区的地表水热传输和陆面参数特征。结果表明:净辐射年平均半湿润区最大,半干旱区次之,干旱区最小,分别为77.7267.7355.47 W/m2。平均净辐射夏季最大,其次分别为春季、秋季和冬季。感热通量年平均干旱区最大,半干旱区次之,半湿润区最小,潜热通量反之。干旱区、半干旱区和半湿润区的年平均感热通量分别是85.7037.5927.55 W/m2,年平均潜热通量分别是0.0026.0851.19 W/m2。干旱区、半干旱区和半湿润区的地下5 cm处年平均土壤热通量分别为1.000.82−1.25 W/m2。干旱区年平均反照率最大,半湿润区次之,半干旱区最小。半干旱区波文比年平均约2.06,半湿润区约−0.03。干旱区、半干旱区和半湿润区土壤热传导率年平均土壤传导率分别为0.261.151.20 W/(m·k)


0295–0326  Holocene lake carbon sequestration, hydrological status and vegetation change, China … LingMei Xu, Yu Li, WangTing Ye, XinZhong Zhang, YiChan Li, YuXin Zhang 

Abstract: Lakes have received considerable attention as long-term sinks for organic carbon (C) at regional and global scales. Previous studies have focused on assessment and quantification of carbon sinks, and few have worked on the relationship between millennial-scale lake C sequestration, hydrological status and vegetation, which has important scientific significance in improving our understanding of lake C stocks and storage mechanisms. Here, we present a comprehensive study of pollen records, organic geochemical proxies, lake-level records, sediment accumulation rate (SAR) and organic C accumulation rate (CAR) in China since the Holocene. We also include numerical climate classification and lake-level simulations, to investigate variations of lake C sequestration, hydrological status and vegetation during the Holocene. Results indicate that the evolution of lake C accumulation showed an out-of-phase relationship with hydrological status and vegetation in China. Lake C accumulation exhibited an overall trend of increasing from the early to late Holocene in response to gradually increasing terrestrial organic matter input. However, China as a whole experienced the densest vegetation cover in the middle Holocene, corresponding to the mid-Holocene optimum of a milder and wetter climate. Optimal hydrological conditions were asynchronous in China; for example, early Holocene in Asian monsoon dominated areas, and middle Holocene in westerlies controlled regions. Our synthesis indicated that climate change was the main factor controlling the long-term variability in lake C accumulation, hydrologic conditions, as well as vegetation, and human influences were usually superimposed on the natural trends.

中国全新世湖泊碳埋藏、水文状况及植被变化研究  徐玲梅,李育,叶旺庭,张新中,李依婵,张宇欣

湖泊作为长时间尺度的碳汇在区域乃至全球碳循环中的发挥着重要的作用。之前的研究主要集中于碳汇的评估和量化,而千年尺度湖泊碳埋藏、水文状况和植被之间关系的研究较少。本文使用中国51个湖泊的全新世孢粉数据、有机地球化学指标、水位记录、沉积物沉积速率和有机碳埋藏速率,结合柯本气候分类和湖泊模型,探讨了全新世以来湖泊碳埋藏、水文状况和植被的变化特征。结果表明,我国千年尺度湖泊碳埋藏速率、水文状况和植被的演化呈现出不同的相位分布变化:湖泊碳埋藏速率从早全新世到晚全新世逐渐增高;植被在暖湿的中全新世最为繁茂;水文最佳期在季风区出现于早全新世,西风区出现于中全新世。此外,我们的研究表明气候变化是控制长时间尺度湖泊碳埋藏、水文条件、植被演化的主要因素,人类的影响通常叠加在自然趋势上。


0327–0334  Effects of gibberellic acid on tiller-bulb number and growth performance of Lilium davidii var. unicolorYuHui He, ZhongKui Xie, XinPing Liu, YaJun Wang, YuBao Zhang, Yang Qiu 

Abstract: Lilium davidii var. unicolor (Lanzhou lily) is an important economic crop in the northwest cold and arid regions of China. Effective regulation of tiller-bulb development and plant growth is the key to improving yield and quality of the lily. This study attempted to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on tiller-bulb development and plant growth of Lanzhou lily by applying GA3 at various concentrations (0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 60 mg/L, and 100 mg/L) before planting and in the seedling period. Results showed that the 60-mg/L GA3 application had an inhibiting effect on tiller-bulb formation and increased the ratios of single and double bulbs but decreased the ratios of bulbs with three or more tiller bulbs, as compared to the control (CK) and other GA3 treatments. The difference in flower number did not reach significant levels among the treatments. The tillering-related endogenous hormones IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and Z (zeatin) content decreased, while IAA/Z increased with the 60-mg/L GA3 treatment during tiller initiation. And also, the shoot-bulb number and total daughter-bulb number decreased significantly with the 60-mg/L GA3 treatment. Furthermore, the 10-mg/L GA3 application promoted growth of Lanzhou lily significantly and resulted in an increase in plant height; bulb diameter; bulb circumference; and biomass of shoots, bulbs, fibrous roots, and the whole plant. Therefore, GA3 application is promising as a new regulation method for inhibiting tiller-bulb development and promoting bulb growth in Lanzhou lily production.

赤霉素对兰州百合子鳞茎数量和植株生长发育的影响  何玉惠,谢忠奎,刘新平,王亚军,张玉宝,邱阳

兰州百合是我国西北干旱冷凉地区重要的经济作物。有效调控子鳞茎数量和植株生长表现是提高兰州百合产量和品质的关键。本研究旨在探讨播种前和苗期不同浓度(0 mg/L10 mg/L30 mg/L60 mg/L100 mg/L)赤霉素(GA3)处理对兰州百合子鳞茎数量和植株生长的影响。研究结果表明,与对照及其它GA3处理相比,60 mg/LGA3处理对兰州百合子鳞茎的形成具有抑制作用,并使单头种球和双头种球的比例增加,三头及三头以上种球的比例降低;而各处理间花蕾数没有形成显著差异。子鳞茎形成初期,60 mg/L GA3处理使得IAA(生长素)和Z(玉米素)等与鳞茎形成相关的内源激素含量降低,二者之间比例IAA/Z增大。同时,60 mg/LGA3处理使百合茎生球数量和总的子鳞茎数量明显减少。此外,10 mg/L GA3处理使百合植株高度、种球直径、种球周长增大,地上茎、种球、纤维根和整株植物生物量增加,对兰州百合生长发育具有显著的促进作用。因此,GA3处理具有抑制百合子鳞茎形成,促进种球生长的作用,有望成为兰州百合生产中新的生长调控方法。



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