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《寒旱区科学》2019年第三期中英双语摘要

已有 105 次阅读 2019-10-21 09:28 |系统分类:论文交流

0173−0183  Studies on eco-environmental change in source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers of China: present and futureJianPing Yang

Abstract: The source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers are important in the field of eco-environmental change research in China because of its distinct alpine ecosystem and cryosphere environment. At present, there are three different concepts on the extent of source areas of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers: hydrological, geographical, and eco-environmental. Over the past decades, annual average air temperature has warmed significantly; moreover, the temperature rise rate increases notably with increase of time of the data series. Annual precipitation has no obvious increase or decrease trend, and the climate has become warm and dry in the source regions. As a result, the cryosphere in the regions has shrunk significantly since 1960s. A warm and dry climate and changing cryosphere together induced a substantial declination of alpine wetlands, marked decrease in river runoff, significant degradation of alpine grassland, and a reduction of engineering stability. The ecological environment, however, has a tendency for restoration in the regions because the climate has become gradually warm and wet since 2000. Thus, studies on eco-environmental change is transforming from a single element to multidisciplinary integration. Climate changecryopshere changephysical and socioeconomic impacts/riskadaptation constitute a chain of multidisciplinary integration research.

长江黄河源区生态环境变化研究:现在与未来  杨建平

长江黄河源区因其独特的高寒生态系统与冰冻圈环境一直是我国生态环境变化研究领域的热点地区,非常重要。目前,存在水文、地理和生态环境三种不同概念的源区范围。过去几十年,长江黄河源区年平均气温显著变暖,而且随研究序列的增加温升率明显增大,1961~2000年的温升率为0.18~0.22 °C/10a1961~2007年增加为0.32~0.36 °C/10a1982~2013进一步增大到0.57~0.62 °C/10a,年降水量没有明显的增减趋势,故源区气候暖干化。现有诸多研究从不同角度描述了长江、黄河源区气候变化的一般特征和格局,但结果存在一定的差异。尽管如此,气候变化已导致源区冰冻圈自20世纪60年代以来明显萎缩,气候暖干与冰冻圈变化共同助推了源区高寒湿地萎缩,河川径流减少,高寒草地退化与工程稳定性降低。然而,自2000年以来,源区气候逐渐变暖湿,生态环境出现恢复趋势。近年来,长江黄河源区生态环境变化研究正在从单一要素研究向多学科交叉的综合研究转变,气候变化冰冻圈变化影响/风险适应构成了多学科综合研究的有机链条,气候变化是这一链条的起点,冰冻圈变化是链接点,适应是终点。

 

01840193  Variation and relationship between soil moisture and environmental factors in the source region of the Yangtze River from 2005 to 2016 … LingLing Song, ZongJie Li, Qing Tian, LieFu Wang, Jing He, RuiFeng Yuan, Juan Gui, BaiJuan Zhang, YueMin Lv 

Abstract: This study analyzed soil moisture, soil erosion, and vegetation in the source region of the Yangtze River from 2005 to 2016. We found that soil moisture showed an increasing trend from 2005 to 2009 but decreased from 2009 to 2016. The surface soil moisture was severely affected by seasonal changes in the source region of the Yangtze River, especially in the soil from 0 to 40 cm. However, seasonal variation of soil moisture deeper than 40 cm was different from that in the upper layer. Soil moisture below 40 cm wasn't affected by the seasonal variation. Soil moisture from 0 to 50 cm and the average thickness of wind deposition showed a positive correlation in the study area from 2005 to 2016. For environmental protection in the source region of the Yangtze River, wind deposition played a role in water retention. Similarly, a positive correlation also existed between the average thickness of wind erosion and soil moisture. Deep-soil moisture was the key factor for vegetation structure on the QinghaiTibet Plateau. The results are also helpful for further understanding the variation of soil moisture on the Tibetan Plateau and providing a scientific basis for effectively protecting and controlling the ecological environment in the future.

2005~2016年长江源区土壤水分与环境因子的变化及关系  宋玲玲,李宗杰,田青,王烈福,何靖,袁瑞丰,桂娟,张百娟,吕越敏

通过对长江源区2005~2016年土壤水分、土壤侵蚀和植被状况的观测,系统分析了长江源区土壤水分的变化规律以及它与环境因子的关系。结果表明,2005~2009年土壤水分含量呈增加趋势,而2009~2016年土壤水分含量呈降低趋势。长江源区表层土壤水分受季节变化的影响较大,特别是0~40 cm的土壤。但40 cm以上的土壤水分季节变化与上层不同,40 cm以下的土壤水分基本不受季节变化的影响。研究区土壤含水量与平均风蚀厚度呈正相关。在长江源区的环境保护中,风积作用起到了明显的保水作用。同样,风蚀平均厚度与土壤水分也存在正相关。同时,长江源区的深层土壤水分是维持植被结构的关键因子。该研究结果将有助于进一步了解青藏高原土壤水分变化规律,为今后有效地保护和控制生态环境提供科学依据。

                                               

0194−0207  Assessing the impacts of ecological-living-productive land changes on ecoenvironmental quality in Xining City on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China … ZiYi Gao, HaiFeng Zhang, XiaoNan Yang, ZhiYuan Song 

Abstract: The Ecological-living-productive land (ELPL) classification system was proposed in an effort to steer China's land pattern to an ecological-centered path, with the development model shifting from a single function into more integrated multifunction land use. The focus is coordinating the man-land contradictions and developing an intensive, efficient and sustainable

land use policy in an increasingly tense relationship between humans and nature. Driven by socioeconomic change and rapid population growth, many cities are undergoing urban sprawl, which involves the consumption of cropland and ecological land and threatens the ecological balance. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the critical effects of ELPL changes on eco-environmental quality according to land use classification based on leading function of ecology, living and production from 1990 to 2015 with a case study of Xining City. Also, four future land use scenarios were simulated for 2030 using the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model that couples human and natural effects. Our results show a decrease in productive land (PL) and an increase in ecological land (EL) and living land (LL) in Xining City. Forestry ecological land (FEL) covered the top largest proportion; agriculture productive land (APL) showed the greatest reduction and urban and rural living land (U-RLL) presented a dramatic increase. The eco-environmental quality improved in 19902010, mainly affected by the conversion of APL to FEL and GEL. However, the encroachment of U-RLL into APL, other ecological land (OEL) and FEL was the main contributor to the decline in eco-environmental quality in 20102015 as well as the primary reason for the increase area of lower-quality. The Harmonious Development (HD)-Scenario, characterized by a rational allocation of LL and PL and a better eco-environment, would have implications for planning and monitoring future management of ELPL, and may represent a valuable reference for local policy-makers.

 

0208–0217  MODIS observed snow cover variations in the Aksu River Basin, Northwest China … Jing Li, ShiYin Liu, Qiao Liu 

Abstract: A major proportion of discharge in the Aksu River is contributed from snow- and glacier-melt water. It is therefore essential to understand the cryospheric dynamics in this area for water resource management. The MODIS MOD10A2 remotesensing database from March 2000 to December 2012 was selected to analyze snow cover changes. Snow cover varied significantly on a temporal and spatial scale for the basin. The difference of the maximum and minimum Snow Cover Fraction (SCF) in winter exceeded 70%. On average for annual cycle, the characteristic of SCF is that it reached the highest value of 53.2% in January and lowest value of 14.7% in July and the distributions of SCF along with elevation is an obvious difference between the range of 3,000 m below and 3,000 m above. The fluctuation of annual average snow cover is strong which shows that the spring snow cover was on the trend of increasing because of decreasing temperatures for the period of 20002012. However, temperature in April increased significantly which lead to more snowmelt and a decrease of snow cover. Thus, more attention is needed for flooding in this region due to strong melting of snow.

中国天山阿克苏河流域积雪变化  李晶,刘时银,刘巧

阿克苏河径流的大部分来自山区的冰雪融水。了解流域的冰冻圈动态对于水资源管理至关重要。选取20003月至201212MODIS MOD10A2遥感数据进行积雪变化分析。流域的积雪覆盖在时间和空间上存在显著差异。冬季最大和最小积雪覆盖率的差值超过70%。年内过程上,积雪覆盖率在1月达到最大值,为53.2%;在7月为最小值,为14.7%。高程对积雪覆盖率的影响显著,海拔3000米以上和3000米以下的积雪覆盖率数值有显著差异。年尺度上的积雪覆盖率波动较大。2000~2012年春季受气温下降影响,积雪覆盖率呈上升趋势。然而,春季各月份的变化并不一致。4月份气温明显升高,导致融雪量增加,积雪面积呈减少趋势。因此,气温上升导致的融雪量增加及其可能导致的融雪洪水灾害需要更多的关注。

 

0218–0225  Glacier mapping based on Chinese high-resolution remote sensing GF-1 satellite and topographic data … LiLi Yan, Jian Wang 

Abstract: The precise glacier boundary is a fundamental requirement for glacier inventory, the assessment of climate change and water management in remote mountain areas. However, some glaciers in mountain areas are covered by debris. The high spatial resolution images bring opportunities in mapping debris-covered glaciers. To discuss the capability of Chinese GaoFen-1 satellite lacking the short wave infrared band and thermal infrared band in mapping glaciers, this study distinguished supraglacial terrain from surrounding debris by combining GaoFen-1 (GF-1) wide-field-view (WFV) images, the ratio of the thermal infrared imagery and morphometric parameters (DEM and slope) with 30 m resolution. The overall accuracy of 90.94% indicated that this method was effective for mapping supraglacial terrain in mountain areas. Comparing this result with the combination of GF-1 WFV and low-resolution morphometric parameters shows that a high-quality DEM and the thermal infrared band enhanced the accuracy of glacier mapping especially debris-covered ice in steep terrain. The user's and producer's accuracies of glacier area were also improved from 89.67% and 85.95% to 92.83% and 90.34%, respectively. GF data is recommended for mapping heavily debris-covered glaciers and will be combined with SAR data for future studies.

基于GF-1卫星遥感影像和地形参数的冰川识别  彦立利,王建

准确的冰川边界是冰川编目、气候变化评估和水资源管理研究的基础数据,然而,一些山地冰川被表碛物覆盖难以识别,高空间分辨率遥感影像为表碛覆盖冰川识别带来了生机。为探讨国产高分卫星在冰川边界识别中的有效性,在缺少短波红外和热红外波段的情况下,本研究将高分宽幅相机多光谱数据、热红外波段比值和30m空间分辨率的地形参数(高程、坡度)相结合,结果显示该方法的总体精度为90.94%,表明该方法在表碛覆盖冰川自动识别中是有效的。同时,将本研究结果与之前研究成果(90 m空间分辨率的地形参数)相比较,发现高质量的数字高程模型和热红外波段能提高冰川尤其陡峭地区表碛覆盖冰川识别的精度,用户精度和产品精度分别从89.67%85.95%提高到92.83%90.34%。在未来冰川研究中,高分数据将用于厚表碛覆盖冰川识别中,也将 SAR数据相结合提高冰川识别的精度。


0226–0238  Stem radial growth indicate the options of species, topography and stand management for artificial forests in the western Loess Plateau, ChinaShengChun Xiao, XiaoMei Peng, QuanYan Tian, Gong Zhu 

Abstract: An understanding of the differences in artificial forest between tree species, slope aspects, and management options in arid environments is fundamentally important for efficient management of these artificial systems; however, few studies have quantified the spatial and temporal differences in stem radial growth of trees in the arid western Loess Plateau of China. Using dendrochronology, we assessed the growth of three woody species (the native shrub Reaumuria soongorica, the exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima and tree Platycladus orientalis) by measuring the annual stem radial increment. We also describe the long-term growth trends and responses to climatic factors on slopes with different aspects during periods with and without irrigation. We found that precipitation during the main growing season was significantly positively correlated with ring growth for all three species and both slope aspects. In addition, supplemental water (e.g., irrigation, rainwater harvesting) greatly relieved drought stress and promoted radial growth. Our results suggest that as the main afforestation species in the Loess Plateau used for soil and water conservation, P. orientalis is more suitable than T. ramosissima under rain-fed conditions. However, a landscape that combined a tree (P. orientalis) with a shrub (R. soongorica) and grassland appears likely to represent the best means of ecological restoration in the arid western Loess Plateau.

黄土高原西部人工林适宜树种、坡向和管理方式的树轮学评价  肖生春,彭小梅,田全彦,朱恭

充分理解干旱环境下不同树种、坡向和管理方式的差异是有效管理人工林系统的理论基础,但目前还缺乏对西部干旱黄土高原上述差异的时空尺度研究。基于树木年轮学方法,选择了该区域天然小灌木红砂、人工植被侧柏和柽柳作为研究对象,进行了不同坡向、灌溉与否等条件下三个树种的径向生长及其趋势评价,以及气候响应研究。研究结果表明:1)持续灌溉的园林管理模式下的侧柏径向生长明显优于其他管理条件下的侧柏和柽柳,乡土小灌木红砂径向生长具有很好的稳定性;2)三个树种径向生长主要受到生长季降水影响,而补灌无疑会缓解干旱胁迫和促进树木生长;3)侧柏在雨养条件下的适应性优于柽柳,柽柳不适于阳坡造林;但两树种在造林时均需辅以人工集雨补灌措施,如反坡集雨和栽植穴覆膜等;4)乔灌草结合是黄土高原适宜的生态恢复景观模式。


0239–0247  A landscape management analysis framework and its preliminary application in Ejina Oasis, Northwest ChinaYouHua Ran, Yan Zhao 

Abstract: The implementation of integrated landscape management to support local and regional human well-being is crucial in arid regions, but its application to date is very limited. Although analytical frameworks have been established to maximize ecosystem services via trade-offs between different landscape configurations, consumption factors such as water resources are rarely and weakly considered in such frameworks. In this paper, an improved integrated landscape-management analysis framework, called the Consumption-integrated Landscape Management to Ecosystem Service (CLMES), is proposed. In this framework, consumption factors are integrated at the same level as ecosystem services. The improved analytical framework is then used to assess and optimize landscape design in the Ejina Oasis, an extremely arid region in western China. Three landscape conditions (past, current, and future) are evaluated, based on the CLMES. Our results indicate that the Heihe River water-allocation program effectively promoted ecosystem services in the Ejina Oasis from 2000 to 2011. However, the excessive expansion of cropland led to a slight decline in habitat quality. An optimized landscape configuration and policy suggestions are proposed, which may be beneficial to the improvement of total water-use efficiency, oasisstability, and resilience of the ecologicalsocial system in the Ejina Oasis.

一种景观管理分析框架及其在额济纳绿洲的初步应用  冉有华,赵炎

在干旱区,实施景观综合管理对保障当地和区域人类福祉至关重要,但迄今为止,其应用十分有限。已有的景观管理分析框架中,主要通过权衡不同的景观配置以寻求生态系统服务最大化的景观结构。但在这些框架中,很少或较弱地考虑了水资源的消耗等成本因素。本文提出了一种改进的综合景观管理分析框架,即权衡成本与生态系统服务的景观管理分析构架(CLMES)。在这个框架中,成本因素与生态系统服务在同一水平上进行考虑。利用改进的分析框架,评价了我国西部极端干旱区额济纳绿洲的三种景观情景(2000年、2011年和规划的景观)。结果表明,黑河分水工程有效地促进了额济纳绿洲2000~2011年的生态系统服务(防风固沙、固碳量增加),但水资源消耗量也急剧增加,耕地的过度扩张导致了栖息地质量的轻微下降。提出了优化的景观配置和政策建议(如减少耕地面积、地表水与地下水协同管理、恢复地下水库功能等),可在减少水资源消耗量的同时,进一步增加防风固沙和固碳量,提高栖息地质量,从而有利于提高额济纳绿洲的总用水效率、绿洲稳定性和生态-社会系统的弹性。

 

0248–0252  Risk prevention and control strategies for the severely affected areas of snow disaster in the Three Rivers Source Region (TRSR), ChinaShiJin Wang, ShengYun Chen, YanQiang Wei

Abstract: Historically, frequent and heavy snow disaster (SD) has caused serious livestock death and casualties, resulting in a devastating impact on animal husbandry development in the Three Rivers Source Region (TRSR). From winter in 2018 to spring in 2019, the largest SD occurred in this area over the past 10 years, especially in core zones of the Lancang River Source Region. Field research results show that the main causes of the major SD include weak infrastructure (i.e., roads, communications, warm sheds, and insufficient forage reserve), low rate of domestic animals for sale before the SD, and low loss settlement rate. SD occurrence could furtherly reduce the ability of disaster prevention, mitigation and relief of disaster loss. In the future, heavily affected SD areas should improve the forecasting ability of snowfall incidents, strengthen infrastructure construction, implement grass and livestock balance strategies, optimize livestock structure, improve loss settlement rate, and develop a modern compound model of animal husbandry development model that combines breeding, slaughtering and deep processing of animal product.

三江源雪灾重灾区风险防范与管控策略  王世金,陈生云,魏彦强

历史上,三江源区频繁而重大的雪灾已导致大量牲畜死亡和人员伤亡,进而对畜牧业发展造成破坏性影响。2018年冬季到2019年春季,该地区发生了过去10年来该地区最大一次雪灾,澜沧江源核心区尤为严重。实地调研结果显示,此次重大雪灾主要因基础设施薄弱(如道路、通信、暖棚和牧草储备不足)、雪灾前家畜的低出栏率以及灾损的低赔付率所致。雪灾的发生可进一步降低防灾、减灾和救灾能力。未来,雪灾重灾区应进一步提升降雪事件预报能力、加强基础设施建设、践行畜草平衡战略、优化畜群结构和提高灾损赔付率,发展集育肥、屠宰和畜产品深加工的现代化复合型畜牧业模式。



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