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2019年及过去20年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获奖者及其贡献! 精选

已有 7493 次阅读 2019-10-7 18:39 |系统分类:科普集锦

2019年及过去20年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获奖者及其贡献!

当地时间107日,2019度诺贝尔生理或医学奖获得者揭晓,William G. Kaelin JrSir Peter J. RatcliffeGregg L. Semenza获得2019年度诺贝尔诺贝尔生理学或医学奖,以表彰他们发现了细胞如何感知以及对氧气供应的适应性The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019 was awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza "for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability."


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2018年,美国得州大学奥斯汀分校免疫学家James P. Allision和日本京都大学教授Tasuku Honjo获奖,以表彰他们发现了抑制负面免疫调节的癌症疗法The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018 was awarded jointly to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation."


2017年,美国科学家Jeffrey C. HallMichael RosbashMichael W. Young,获奖成果为“发现了生物钟调控的分子机制”The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was award to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young " for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm".

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2016年,日本科学家Yoshinori Ohsumi获奖,获奖成果为发现了细胞自噬机制。The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016 was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy".

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2015年,我国科学家Youyou Tu、爱尔兰科学家William C. Campbell和日本科学家Satoshi ōmura获奖,获奖成果是疟疾新疗法的发现蛔虫寄生虫感染新疗法的发现The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015 was divided, one half jointly to William C. Campbell and Satoshi ōmura "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" and the other half to Youyou Tu "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria".

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2014年,美国科学家John O'KeefeMay-Britt Moser和挪威科学家Edvard I. Moser获奖,获奖理由是发现构成大脑定位系统的细胞The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was divided, one half awarded to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain".

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2013年,美国科学家James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman和德国科学家Thomas C. Südhof获奖,获奖成果是发现细胞内的主要运输系统——囊泡运输的调节机制The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 was awarded jointly to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells".

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2012年,英国科学家John B. Gurdon和日本科学家Shinya Yamanaka获奖,获奖成果为发现成熟细胞可被重编程变为多能性The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012 was awarded jointly to Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent".

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2011年,美国科学家Bruce A. Beutler和法国科学家Jules A. Hoffmann,获奖成果为先天免疫激活方面的发现;美国科学家Ralph M. Steinman,获奖成果为发现树突状细胞及其在获得性免疫中的作用The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011 was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".

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2010年,英国科学家Robert Edwards因发展体外授精疗法获奖。The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 was awarded to Robert G. Edwards "for the development of in vitro fertilization".

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2009年,美国Elizabeth BlackburnCarol Greider以及Jack Szostak获奖,获奖成果为端粒和端粒酶保护染色体的机理The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009 was awarded jointly to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase".

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2008年,德国Harald zur Hausen因发现人类乳突淋瘤病毒(HPV)导致子宫颈癌而获奖;法国科学家Françoise Barré-SinoussiLuc Montagnier因发现人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)而获奖。The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008 was divided, one half awarded to Harald zur Hausen "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer", the other half jointly to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".

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2007年,美国科学家Mario R. CapecchiOliver Smithies与英国科学家Martin J. Evans,获奖成果为在胚胎干细胞和哺乳动物的DNA重组方面The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007 was awarded jointly to Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".

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2006,美国科学家Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello获奖,获奖成果为“RNA干扰机制双链RNA沉默基因The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006 was awarded jointly to Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA".

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2005,澳大利亚Barry MashallRobin Warren获奖,获奖成果为发现了导致胃炎和胃溃疡的细菌——幽门螺杆菌The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005 was awarded jointly to Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease".

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2004年,美国科学家Richard AxelLinda B. Buck获奖,获奖成果为在气味受体和嗅觉系统组织方式研究中作出贡献,揭示了人类嗅觉系统的奥秘The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004 was awarded jointly to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system".

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2003年,美国科学家Paul C. Lauterbur和英国科学家Sir Peter Mansfield获奖,获奖成果为核磁共振成像技术The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003 was awarded jointly to Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging".

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2002年,英国科学家Sydney BrennerJohn E. Sulston和美国科学家H. Robert Horvitz获奖,获奖成果为器官发育和程序性细胞死亡The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002 was awarded jointly to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston "for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".

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2001年,美国科学家Leland Hartwell英国科学家Paul NurseTimothy Hunt获奖,获奖成果为“发现了细胞周期中关键调控因子The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001 was awarded jointly to Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".

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2000年,瑞典科学家Arvid Carlsson美国科学家Paul GreengardEric R. Kandel获奖,获奖成果为神经系统信号传送The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000 was awarded jointly to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system".

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1999年,美国科学家Günter Blobel“获奖,获奖成果为发现蛋白质具有控制其在细胞内转运和定位的内在信号The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999 was awarded to Günter Blobel "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell".

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1998年,美国科学家F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro Ferid Murad获奖,获奖成果为一氧化氮生理作为信号分子及其功能The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998 was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system".

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2019年诺贝尔奖
http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3319332-1200977.html

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