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从国内高校师资建设的博士化(doctoralization)说开去

已有 1093 次阅读 2020-11-2 09:31 |系统分类:科研笔记

国内高校师资建设流行博士化doctoralization,这很好。但是您知道吗,在美国和西方世界,有些学科的终端学位没有博士学位。所以美国高校一般不使用这个词,而是使用terminal degree这个概念,比如华盛顿大学这样描述:

Many faculty jobs at the University of Washington require a terminal degree, the generally accepted highest degree in a field of study. While a doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields of study, it may differ for other disciplines. Note that degrees awarded by foreign institutions may have different titles, but could be equivalent to one of these terminal degrees. Check with the appropriate school/college or department to verify which degrees are considered terminal.


谷歌翻译一下:华盛顿大学的许多教职工作都要求获得最终学位,这是研究领域中公认的最高学位。博士学位是大多数研究领域的最终学位,但其他学科可能有所不同。请注意,外国机构授予的学位可能具有不同的头衔,但可能等同于这些终极学位之一。请与适当的学校/学院或部门核对,以确认哪个学位被认为是终极学位。

Typical Terminal Degrees: Ph.D. ,M.D., D.D.S. ,D.D.M. ,D.V.M. ,J.D., M.F.A., M.Arch。

https://ap.washington.edu/ahr/policies/terminal-degrees/

关于terminal degree请见我科学网博文

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=3316383&do=blog&id=1129511


有些学科的终端学位在美国的大学教育系统里是没有博士学位的,最典型的就是艺术类。艺术类的最终学位是MFA(Master of Fine Arts)通常MFA被认为是高于MA(Master of Arts)。有些人告诉我艺术类有博士学位的,那是艺术史,或音乐史,并不是表演艺术或绘画艺术。建筑类也类似。MFA才表明您的表演艺术在学术上达到了顶峰。


US News说:

What is an MFA degree?

An MFA degree signifies that a professional artist has completed a series of rigorous courses in his or her art form and signals that someone is adept at his or her chosen craft, whether it is a technologically intensive field like graphic design or film editing, or a technology-free art form like drawing. An MFA is a graduate-level credential, meaning that before you get an MFA, you typically need a college degree.

MFA degree recipients say their graduate school education allowed them to refine their artistic philosophy and creative techniques while elevating the quality of their art to make it more unique, polished and interesting. In addition, MFA degree holders say having an MFA has given them the credentials necessary to teach courses in their art form at colleges and universities, and that it gives them sufficient knowledge of their art discipline to offer thoughtful critiques.


谷歌翻译一下: 拥有MFA学位意味着专业艺术家已完成其艺术形式的一系列严格课程,并表明有人擅长于其所选择的手艺,无论是图形设计或电影剪辑等技术密集型领域,还是免技术的艺术形式,例如绘画。 MFA是研究生级别的证书,这意味着在获得MFA之前,您通常需要具有大学学历。

获得MFA学位的人说,他们的研究生教育使他们能够完善自己的艺术哲学和创作技巧,同时提高其艺术作品的质量,使其更加独特,精美和有趣。此外,拥有MFA学位的人说拥有MFA已经为他们提供了在高等学校教授其艺术形式的课程所必需的证书,并且使他们拥有了足够的艺术学科知识,可以进行周到的批评。

https://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/articles/what-an-mfa-degree-is-and-what-you-need-to-know


美国耶鲁大学艺术学院唯一的研究生学位就是MFA,设有图形设计,绘画,摄影,雕塑专业:


MASTER OF FINE ARTS DEGREE (MFAS)

The degree of Master of Fine Arts is the only degree offered by the School of Art. It is conferred by the University upon recommendation of the faculty after successful completion of all course work in residence and after a thesis presentation that has been approved by the faculty. It implies distinctive achievement on the part of students in studies in the professional area of their choice and demonstrated capacity for independent work. The minimum residence requirement is two years. All candidates’ work is reviewed by faculty at the end of each term. If the work is not considered satisfactory, the student may not be invited back to complete the program (see section on Review and Awards under Academic Regulations in the chapter General Information). 


谷歌翻译一下:美术硕士学位MFA是艺术学院唯一提供的学位。 大学在完成所有在校课程工作并获得学院批准的论文介绍后,根据学院的建议由大学授予该学位。 它意味着学生在自己选择的专业领域中的学习取得了显著成就,并表现出独立工作的能力。 最低在校居住要求为两年。 每学期结束时,所有候选人的工作都会由教员进行审查。 如果工作不令人满意,则可能不会邀请学生完成课程(请参阅一般信息一章中有关学术规则下的评审与奖励部分)。 

https://www.art.yale.edu/about

GRAPHIC DESIGN (MFA)

PAINTING AND PRINTMAKING (MFA)

PHOTOGRAPHY (MFA)

SCULPTURE (MFA)


获得这些学位的MFA就可以在美国的各类人文艺术大学做教授。如果国内大学一味要求博士学位,而不和国际接轨,那么优秀的艺术家在国外学成后只拿到了MFA,回国到国内大学根本做不了教授。学艺术的国内学生比如中央美院学美术,艺术学院学舞蹈的,到美国或西方大学想申请博士学位他们也找不到类似招生的专业,因为压根就没有,不存在!


顺便说一句,我们美国图书馆员的terminal degreeMLISMaster Degree of Library & Information Studies or Master Degree of Library & Information Science), 即使拥有数学博士学位,如果没有MLIS,在美国大学图书馆不能成为Librarian


实际上美国的大学在助理教授以上岗位一律要本学科终端学位,这是强制性条件,跨学科学位成为本专业助理教授以上的几乎不可能,所以跨学科的教授会有两个博士学位,或相应的硕士学位如果这些硕士学位是终端学位的话,比如有文学博士学位,再读一个MFA,去艺术学院教艺术,他评教授的终端学位是MFA,而不是文学博士学位。这就是美国大学的博士化“doctoralization”,我打个引号以示区别。




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3316383-1256739.html

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