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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 8节选)

已有 1653 次阅读 2015-9-9 03:20 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,8| Water, chapter


8

Traces of Trouble:

Hormones,Pharmaceuticals, and Toxic Chemicals

第八章

“痕量”的麻: 激素、物和有毒化学品

In 1995, I was invited to give a talk at a scientific conference featuring the up-and-coming water pollution researchers. Of course I agreed to go. After all, I was flattered by the attention, and as a freshly minted assistant professor I knew that being identified as someone who stood out from his peers would be useful when it came time for tenure review. That the conference was to be held in Honolulu in mid-December had only a minor bearingon my decision to accept the invitation.

1995年我邀在一个学上做告,个会针对从事水染研究的学生和即将毕业的年人。我理所当然地接受了邀竟,能收到种邀请让我感到非常荣幸。而且,作一名新的助理教授,我也知道能被同行佼佼者,我以后申为终身教授的审查过程会有益。会定于12月中旬在檀香山召开,这对我决定接受一邀的影响并不大。


Like most of the other speakers, I planned to slink off to the beach for a week of rejuvenation after giving my talk. To be polite, I had to attenda day of sessions with my colleagues, but that seemed like a small price topay. I wasn’t expecting to learn much, because I already knew most of the other presenters and had read their papers or seen them give talks at other conferences. I certainly didn’t anticipate that one of the talks would change the focus of my subsequent research and cause me to develop a deep skepticism about the ways in which cities obtain, treat, and dispose of water.

像大多数其他演者一,我打算在做完告后就开溜,去海休假一星期。当然,了礼貌,我必跟我的同事一起参加一天的会,不只是了休假而付出的一个很小的代价。我并不期待能有很多收,因认识大部分演者并阅读过文,或者在其他会上聆听告。我完全没有想到其中一个告会我改的研究重点,并我深深地疑城市取水、理水和排放()水的方式。


The source of my trouble was a new graduate from Brunel University in England named Susan Jobling. I had never heard of any cutting edge research outthis tiny school just outside Landon and was surprised when she reported findings unlike anything I had ever read. Jobling talked about research she had recently completed as part of her Ph.D. under the supervision of John Sumpter, a biologist who had switched his research focus from the fundamentals of fish reproduction to water pollution upon learning of the alarmingly high prevalence in British rivers of male fish with eggs growing in their testes. Sumpter found out about this unusual phenomenon from British government researchers who had observed hermaphroditic fish in the River Lea, a tributary of the Thames River, starting in the early 1980s. Scientists working for the government-run utility, Thames Water, had quietly been trying to determine the extent of the phenomenon and its causes for several years when Sumpter and his students got involved. Bythe early 1990s, the combined team had documented the occurrence of male fishwith eggs growing inside their testes in urban rivers throughout Britain. They also had learned that sewage treatment plants were the source of the problem: when they placed male trout in cages immediately downstream of treatment plants, the fish started producing eggs after as little as two weeks of exposure. Something in sewage was turning male fish into hermaphrodites.1

对饮用水安全的关注,源自珊·布林,一名从英国布大学毕业的博士。我之前从来没有听说过来自于敦郊外的小学校的任何前沿性研究工作,但是听完她那与众不同的告后,我大吃一惊。布林到她最近完成的研究果,是她的博士文的一部分,是在她的导师———生物学家翰·桑普特———指下完成的。桑普特在得知英国河流中雄睾丸内生长鱼卵的象很普遍后,就将研究重心由鱼类生殖机理向水体染。20世80年代早期,英国政府研究人察到泰晤士河的支流———利河———里有雌雄同体的。当桑普特从那些政府研究人那里得知一不同常的象后,他就和他的一些学生加入研究。那政府机构———泰晤士水———服的科学家早已对这象的生范和原因在内部开展了数年的调查。到20世90年代初,合研究团队记录下了全英国的城市河流里雄睾丸内卵的事件。他认识理厂是该问题的来源:当他将装在网箱里的雄性鳟鱼放入理厂的下游后,经过短短两个星期的境暴露,雄性鳟鱼即开始卵。是因为污水里的不明物使雄雌性化了[1]

 

(Last two paragraphs of Chapter 8)

My encounter with Susan Jobling in 1995 led me to question the practice of using river as a dumping ground for sewage effluent. Initially, it was the presence of steroid hormones in effluent-dominated surface waters and their ability to feminize fish that drew my attention. After my colleagues and I learned that the problem could be solved by relatively simple measures, like improving the ability of the sewage treatment plant to remove organic matter or by adding a relatively inexpensive additional step, like chlorination, at the end of the treatment process, we turned our attention to the less potent manmade chemicals. We still do not know which, if any, of these chemicals might be causing subtle effects on the growth and reproduction of fish and other aquatic organisms that make their homes in effluent-dominated rivers, though it is clear that some of the compounds survive their trip to our drinking water treatment plants. In most cases, the concentrations of the difficult-to-remove compounds are so low that it is exceedingly unlikely that they will affect our health. But in a few cases, the manmade chemicals react with chemical disinfectants during drinking water treatment to produce potent mutagens or carcinogens. Initial evidence suggests that we might be able to eliminate some of these chemicals by upgrading our sewage and water treatment plants, but the total cost of such improvements is high.

我和布林在1995年的邂逅,我开始疑将水排入河流种做法的合理性。起初,是以的地表水域存在固醇激素及其能鱼类雌性化的问题引起了我的关注。我和我的同事了解到,该问题可以采用相对简单的措施加以解决,如提高理厂去除有机物的能力或添加一个相廉价的外步,如在理的最后段采用气消毒。于是,我将目光向了低毒性的人造化合物。我依旧不知道,些人造化合物中的哪些,如果有的,可以微地影响鱼类及其他栖息在水主的河流中的水生生物的生长发育和繁殖,尽管可以确定一些化合物在流向用水理厂的途中没有被降解。大多数情况下,以去除的化合物的度低至几乎不可能的健康生任何影响。但是在少数情况下,在用水段,人造化合物会与消毒生有效的诱变剂或致癌物。初步据表明,我可以通级现有的理厂和用水理厂来消除其中的一些化合物,但是种升是巨大的。


In addition to activated carbon and ozone, there are numerousup-and-coming water treatment technologies that might be more effective than the retrofits that are currently being contemplated. Before we start investingin Water 3.1—an upgrade of our aging wastewater and drinking water systems to address the problems caused by trace amounts of chemicals in wastewater—we should consider approaches for breaking free of the nineteenth- and twentieth-century practice of using our rivers and drinking water supplies for waste disposal.

除了活性炭和臭氧,多正在开中的水理技会比当前使用的升修复划更有效。即将到来的水3.1,是了升们陈旧的水和用水理厂,用以解决水中痕量化合物引起的问题。在水3.1代投前,我们应当首先考传统的生活方式中脱出来,不再沿用19世和20世的那套老法,将河流和用水源用来弃物。

 

 

ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)



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