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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 7节选)

已有 1814 次阅读 2015-9-8 15:28 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,7| Water, chapter


 

7

“Drains to Bay”

第七章

流入海湾的下水道

On the curb across the street from my office there is a sign with apicture of a little blue fish ringed by the words, “No Dumping—Drains to Bay.” Underneath the sign sits the storm sewer—an entry point for rainwater traveling through the underground pipe system designed to protect the sity of Berkeley, California, from flooding. Any water flowing into the storm sewer makes a speedy trip under the city to a pipe that ends at the edge of San Francisco Bay. Along with the rainwater, anything else that has found its way into thestreet, like trash, leaves, or dirt, gets dumped into the bay and beyond.

在我公室的窗外有一条街道。街那的路旁有一指示牌,上面画着一条色的小着小的是英文字母成的一个圈:“禁止倒(垃圾)———(是)流入海湾的(雨水)下水道!”在指示牌的下面是雨水下水道———是一个雨水的入口,雨水由里流入地下管道,保加州伯克利城免于洪。流入个下水道的任何水,都会通城市地下管网快速入主排水管,管的出口在旧金山湾的边缘。跟随雨水一起流入海湾和更远处的,有街道上其他可以与水一起漂流的西,如垃圾、叶或土。

 

The storm sewers in your neighborhood, which may or may not have acute sign stenciled above them, might follow the same practice, draining rain and melted snow to a local stream, river, lake, or bay. Then again, they might be connected to the same underground pipe system that carries wastes from your home to the sewage treatment plant. Either way, these long-ignored systems are falling apart. And as they deteriorate, they will endanger our health as wellas the habitats of fish, insects, and birds living in and around our inland and coastal waters.

小区的雨水下水道,无是否有可标识,都具有相同的功能:将雨水、融化后的雪水排入当地的小溪、河流、湖泊或者海湾。此外,它们还有可能通到同一个地下排管系,和你家的弃物一起排入理厂。无哪种方式,期被忽的地下管道系,目前正濒临。随着些系的老化,我的健康和生活在内及沿海水域里的、昆虫和鸟类的栖息地都将会受到威


Like the underground pipe networks developed to remove wastes from homes and streets during the nineteenth century, the urban drainage systems built over the past three centuries were an expedient means of moving unwanted water out of cities. But in the process of solving one problem, we created a new one: although the sewers quickly transported large volumes of water away from flood-prone streets, they often damaged the places where the water was discharged. In light of the difficulties faced by cities currently struggling to repair decaying pipes and to keep up with the increasing volume of water their existing drainage systems, it evident that in the near future we aregoing to have to spend hundreds of billions of dollars on these concrete and cast-ion plumbing systems.1

与19世修建的用于移除家庭和街道弃物的地下管网一去3个世里建立的城市排水系仅仅是一个宜之,用以移除城市里不需要的水。但是在解决了一个问题的同,我又制造出新的问题:尽管些下水道可以快速排掉街道上大量水,但它又会排水口的出口所在地造成破坏。于城市当前面着需要努力修的破管道,以及跟上日益增加的水排出量等问题,在不久的将来,我将不得不花上千亿美元的金去维护这些由水泥和铸铁制造的管道系[1]


The need for huge investments in urban drainage also represents an opportunity: by building new types of drainage systems that take advantage ofthe ability of natural systems to store and purify water, we might be able toend up in a better place. With a little ingenuity, we can reinvent storm sewers in a manner that saves money, improves the environment, and even replenish our drinking water supply.

更新城市排水系需要巨。但是,也意味着一个契机:通利用天然系化水体的能力,建新型排水系,或可以使我们获益良多。通独具匠心的设计,我新建一种雨水下水道,能省、改善境,甚至充供水。


Why does a city need a drainage system, anyway? Consider what happens when rain lands in a park, a plot of forest, or a farmer’s field. Much of thewater percolates into the soil, where it provides moisture to plants andrecharge groundwater. The water that does not soak into the soil flows gently downhill under the force of gravity. Along the way, it forms rivulets, which join together to form a network of streams and rivers.

然而,何一个城市需要排水系呢?想象雨水落到一个公园、一片森林或者是一块农田的情景。大部分水会渗入土壤里,植物提供水分,充地下水。未渗入土壤的水会在重力的作用下慢慢往低流。些水在沿途流成溪、聚,形成一个由溪流与河流成的网


Now consider the consequences of covering the land with buildings and other impervious surfaces that prevent water from soaking into the soil. If the hard surfaces were perfectly flat, the accumulated water would form gigantic puddles. But this rarely happens because most land is sloped, even after it iscovered with asphalt or concrete. As a result, all the rainwater still flows downhill. If this large amount of water were to stay in a city, it would turn streets into rivers every time it rained and, much to the chagrin of homeownersand insurance agents, flood the basements of homes in low-lying areas. This process is exactly what happens in slums of developing countries that have been built without storm sewers.

在,想象一下当土地被建筑物及其他不透水的表面所覆盖,从而阻止水分渗入土壤的果 。倘若硬的地表足平坦,累的水将会形成一个巨大的水洼。当然,因即使土地上了青或混凝土后,大部分的地面斜的。于是,所有的雨水依然往低流。如果大量的水存在城市里的,每次下雨街道都会成江河,地势较低的地下室会被淹没,房主和保机构来很多烦恼种情况在展中国家的民窟尤,因没有雨水下水道。

 

(Last two paragraphs of Chapter 7)

The public is usually oblivious to urban drainage problems. Consequently, if low-impact development is going to succeedat the scale of an entire city, committed advocates are needed from outside ofthe water sector. One of the best examples of the level of commitment needed to successfully launch a citywide low-impact development project is Philadelphia’s “Green City, Clean Waters” program. Faced with the prospect of an expensive retrofit to address its combined sewer overflow problem, Philadelphia’s mayor, Michael Nutter, decided shortly after his inauguration in 2008 to pursue low-impact development as an alternative to the conventional engineering approach.46 But simply choosing low-impact development over underground tunnels was not enough. In addition to pushing for cooperation from the city’s water department, which had led previous efforts to combat the city’s combined sewer overflows, the mayor enlisted support from the government departments responsible for Philadelphia’s parks, schools, transportation, and taxcollection. After he got the buy-in from city agencies, he turned to sellinghis program to the public. To do this, he established a comprehensive program called “Greenworks Philadelphia” that explained his vision for the ways in which green infrastructure would transform every aspect of city life. Inessence, he made a commitment to supporting green development as mayor.

公众一般不会关心城市排水系问题。因此,低影响开模式想要在整个城市范得成功的需要得水之外的官方承。在城市范内成功落低影响开模式所需要的支持的一个最好的例子,是城的“绿色的城市,干的水域”目。面解决合流制排水系溢流问题需要花贵资金,城市米歇·在其2008年的就后不久,决定采用低影响开模式来替代传统方法[46]。但是,一步到位地选择低影响开模式来代替地下蓄水库这一决定本身是不的。除了求一直在解决合流制下水道溢流问题努力的水的合作外,市长还寻求那些负责费城公园、学校、交通和税收等政府部的支持。在些部意支持他的候,他开始向公众推他的划。他成立了一个名叫“绿色工程”的目,用以明他的景:采用绿色基将会改城市生活的每一方面。从本,作,他支持绿色事展做出了一个承


The consent decree that the mayor signed in 2012 with the Environmental Protection Agency commits the city to a twenty-five-year program that will cover about one third of the city’s impervious surfaces with green roofs, raingardens, permeable pavement, and other low-impact development features capable of capturing and retaining the first 2.9 cm (one inch) of precipitation.47 If everything goes according to plan, Philadelphia will invest approximately $2.5 billion in projects on city-owned land and private properties in its quest to reduce runoff. While the city’s estimates suggest that the low-impact development approach will be more cost-effective than digging underground tunnels and expanding the capacity of sewage treatment plants, Philadelphia could still end up spending more than cities that followed the conventional path. But if Nutter’s plan succeeds, the city will have gained more than a network of underground sewage tunnels. Low-impact development promises to offer energy savings, create attractive green spaces, and reintroduce residents of the city to the water cycle. Only time will tell if the investment was worth the extra effort.

2012年境保署了一项协议。根据该协议城将用25年时间来更覆盖城市的三分之一不透水(地)表面,采用包括绿色屋、雨水花园、透水路面,以及其他具有低影响开特性的措施来截留最初的2.5厘米降水[47]。如果一切按划行事,城将会在城市和私人的房地上投将近25亿美元以减少径流。尽管城市的示,低影响开模式会比开挖地下“蓄水”和理厂的容量更划算,城仍然有可能比那些遵循传统方法的城市花更多的。但是,如果划成功的得的将不只是地下水管网。低影响开模式承提供低能耗,造具有吸引力的绿色空,以及市民重新参与到水循中。在,只有时间会告们这项是否得。

ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)



 




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