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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 5节选)

已有 1650 次阅读 2015-9-7 04:10 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,5| Water, chapter


5

Burning Rivers, Fading Paint, and the Clean Water Movement

第五章

的河流、褪色的油漆和清水运

In the 1960s, Edwin Chadwick, Victor Hugo, Karl Marx, and their fellow reformers campaigned vigorously for centralized systems to helpfarmers capture the nutrients in the sewage pouring out of rapidly growingcities. But by the end of the century the widespread availability of inexpensive synthetic fertilizers had taken away the economic incentives for sewage farming.1 Without a market for the nutrients, it was hard to justify doing anything other than discharging sewage directly to surface waters. In locations where sewage posed obvious threats to drinking water, cities tappednew sources in distant watersheds, or they built drinking water treatment plants equipped with filters and chlorine disinfection systems.

19世60年代,德威克、雨果、克思及他的改革派同仁极力推广集中式水系,以帮助民从迅速增的城市水中养元素用于耕作。但到了19世末,廉价的人工合成化肥的广泛使用,使得水灌不再有利可[1]。由于没有人购买污水中的养元素,就只能直接将水排入地表水中。在用水源受到明显污染的那些地区,地方政府要去更的流域开新水源,或者建立配过滤装置和气消毒系用水理厂。


Although these measures were effective in fighting waterborne disease,they did nothing to reduce the foul smells of sewage-polluted waters. Incoastal cities located on rivers, such as London and Boston, where the odors ofsewage made downtown living unpleasant, individual sewers were hooked togetherin regional systems with outlets draining to the ocean.2 After these sewer networks were built, wastes discharged by upstream communities and local industries still caused smells along the waterfront, but the situation wasvastly improved a few blocks from the water.3

尽管些措施有效减少了水媒疾病的生,却无助于消除水的臭。像敦和波士顿这些有河流的沿海城市,由于市中心臭的困,人将区域系内的独立管道与入海排接到一起[2]些排管网建成后,然上游和当地工厂排放的物使得海附近的水域仍臭不断,但是在离些水域稍微一点的地方,情况大有改善[3]

 

During the nineteenth century few people paid attention to the odors caused by sewage discharges until they penetrated residential areas. While it may be hard to fathom for those of us accustomed to museums, restaurant, and condominiums situated on expensive waterfront real estate, the urban waterfronts of the early industrial period were bustling, low-rent zones where loading docks, factories, and power plants prevented the public from approaching the water. Even if people could get there, they might not be ableto distinguish the smell of sewage from the boat exhaust, burning coal, livestock, rotting vegetables and other items that moved along the docks and sometimesfell into the water.4

在19世,当水排放引起的没影响到居民区,很少有人注意问题于我们这些已经习惯了昂的海地区的博物店和公寓的人来,很想象在工代的早期,城市海竟然是繁忙的廉租区。那里有装卸码头、工厂和发电厂,人无法靠近海水。即使到了海,也根本分辨不出哪是船尾气,哪是燃煤、牲畜、腐蔬菜出的臭味;沿码头搬运和堆放的各物品或者它掉落入水中后,也会放出怪味[4]

 

(Last two paragraphs of Chapter 5)

The sewage treatment plants built during the twentieth century can bethought of as the third revolution in urban water infrastructure—Water 3.0. Gradual progress began with a recognition that cities were becoming too big torely on self-purification. Initially primary treatment plants were built as ameans of eliminating the aesthetic problems caused by oxygen depletion. But, aspopulation increased, more sophisticated treatment plants were needed to protect downstream drinking water supplies and aquatic ecosystems from the negative effects of sewage. Through the efforts of engineers at places like the Lawrence Experimental Station and the University of Manchester, reliable aboveground treatment processes were developed to harness the ability of microbes to purify water. But before the situation was perceived to be a major crisis, the publicwas reluctant to spend more than about a dollar a month per person to solve the problems posed by sewage. Ultimately, a public consensus to address sewage pollution at the national level coupled with a comprehensive set of laws and funding turned the situation around.

20世纪兴建的理厂,可以称第三次城市水理基础设施的革命,即“水3.0”。慢的步是这样开始的:人到城市已太大,不可能仅仅依靠水体的自能力来解决问题。起初,初级污理厂的建立是了消除由溶解氧的耗而引臭。但是,随着人口的增,我的城市需要建更复理厂,以保下游的供水和水生生免遭水的面影响。经过劳伦实验站和曼斯特大学等位的工程师们的努力,利用微生物水的技已开出来。但是,在水染被公认为是主要危机之前,人不愿意在水上花每人每月多于1美元的投。最,多数人认为污应该全国一来解决,加上一系列配套的法律和邦政府的款,才扭了美国水染的局面。

 

Our modern sewage treatment plants were built to eliminate oxygen depletion, and in achieving this goal they solved many of the more pressingproblems of the day. But as cities have continued to grow, it has become clearthat treatment plants also have to remove nutrients, toxin metals, and synthetic organic chemicals. Technologies are available to accomplish thesetasks, but like the transition from primary treatment to secondary treatment, retrofitting sewage treatment plants will require additional funds. In addition, the initial rush to build treatment plants meant that adequate provisions were not made tosupport the maintenance and upgrades needed to keep the network of water and wastewater treatment systems working in the future. Now that our attention hadmoved on to other challenges, like greenhouse gases and climate change,additional regulations and government grants are unlikely to provide all of themeans necessary to replace the worn parts and make the needed improvements. We must address these problems now if we wish to avoid reversing much of the hard-won progress of the mid- to late twentieth century.

理厂的建立,是基于消除溶解氧耗而引臭。事上,理厂在消除臭的同解决了多当代十分迫的问题。然而,随着城市的持续扩大,人理厂去除水中的养素、有毒金属和合成有机化合物。在技上,些都可以做到;但是,就像从初级处理向二级处转变理厂的改造需要外的金。此外,当初理厂匆忙上意味着存不足,不能支持将来些水和理系正常运行所需的维护和升在,我的注意力已移到了其他的新的挑,如温室气体和气候化,外的法律条例和政府的款不可能提供所有的必要源,去更的零部件和行必要的改。如果我珍惜20世中、后期所取得的来之不易的步,不想重蹈覆,我就必在开始面对这些棘手的问题

 

ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)

 




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