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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 3节选)

已有 1876 次阅读 2015-9-5 02:57 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,3| Water, chapter


 

 

3

Europe’s Sewage Crisis

第三章

欧洲的水危机

As Western civilization made the transition from medieval to the modern era, the systems that had been developed to provide water and remove wastes struggled to keep up with increasing population densities. A new approach was needed if cities were going to continue their rapid growth. In response to the problems caused by inadequate and polluted water supplies, each city relied on its own ideas about public health, aesthetics, and the role ofthe state in civil affairs in order to develop urban water systems that were best suited for their particular climates and geographic features. The differences in the water infrastructures developed in carious European cities have diminished over time, but they can still be seen in the practices andattitudes of modern Europeans.

当西方文明逐从中世,已有的供水和排只能勉地跟随着日益增的人口密度。如果些城市要持其快速展,必有一套新的供水系为应对供水不足及水体染所引起的问题,每座城市会依据其在公共生、美,以及市政府在民政事中所起作用的理念,展一套适合各自特殊气候和地理特征的城市水系。随着时间的推移,不同的欧洲城市开的水利基础设施,其差异逐渐缩小。但从代欧洲人的具体践和念仍能看出种城市的差异。


These differences are best understood by exploring the development of urban water infrastructure in the two largest cities of the period—London andParis. Both cities are located on the banks of major rivers (the Thames and the Seine, respectively), and both experienced rapid population growth starting inthe sixteenth century, with populations crossing the one million mark near the beginning of the nineteenth century. When demand for water exceeded its supplyand wastes from the densely populated cities started to foul the streets and polluted the water supply, London and Paris both started building up their water infrastructures.

厘清种城市差异的最好方式是探索当世界上最大的两座城市———敦和巴黎———的水利基础设展状况。两座城市分位于泰晤士河和塞河河畔。从16世开始,两座城市都经历了高速的人口增,19世初的人口模已超100万。当城市的用水供不求、人口密集城市的便开始染街道和供水的候,敦和巴黎都开始建造自己的水利基础设施。

 

(Last three paragraphs of Chapter 3)

Although the attempt by Paris’s leaders to reuse its citizens’ wastesfor agriculture was laudable, it was ultimately impractical, because continued growth meant that there was not enough land to spread all of the waste close tothe city. Attempts to apply more sewage than the crops could handle would inevitably lead to decreased crop yields and foul odors emanating from the “sewage sick” farms. If sewage farms were to succeed, more land would beneeded.37

尽管巴黎的官员尝试便用于农业的做法得称,但种做法最是不切实际的。因城市模的持,意味着城市周没有足的土地来利用所有的便。试图多的水用于农场,可能会超过农作物的承受度。么做,将不可避免地致作物量下降,以及来自“过饱和”农场出的臭。若要得成功,唯一的法是要有更多的土地[37]


In the 1920s, civic leaders proposed an ambitious plan to build apipeline to take the wastes of Paris to sites in the Champagne region 140 km (87 miles) west of the city.38 The project would permanently solve the city’ssewage problem by increasing the acreage of sewage farms tenfold. Ultimately, theproject was never built, because the price of fertilizer had dropped too muchto make the recycling of nutrients attractive.39 In addition, by this time agronomistshad realized that the mixture of nutrients in human waste contained lessphosphorus than plants needed. When the lower cost of imported fertilizer andthe need to supplement sewage with phosphorus were both factored into theanalysis, sewage farms became less attractive.

20世20年代,市政府官提出了一个大的划,即修建一条管道线,将巴黎的便送到市区以西140公里的香[38]增加10倍田的面,来一永逸地解决巴黎的问题。但目最并未施,因化肥的价格下降得太多,以至于利用便中养成分的做法不再具有吸引力[39]。此外,这时农学家到人类粪便中混合养物的含磷量低于植物生所需的磷的用量。合考廉价的口肥料和需要向水中充磷元素两方面因素,田就不再具有吸引力。


By the end of the nineteenth century, Paris and London had both givenup on the prospect of reusing human waste because other sources of fertilizerwere readily available. To protect public health, sewage was being dischargeddirectly into the Seine and Thames. The water intakes had either been moved upstream or water was being imported from less contaminated sources outside ofthe cities. The water supply was safe and secure. Problem solved—unless, ofcourse, you lived downstream.

到19世末,巴黎和敦都放弃了继续利用人类粪便,因其他来源的肥料已很容易得。当地居民的健康,水直接被排入塞河和泰晤士河。取水口移到河流的上游,或者从城外较轻的地方取水。这样的供水既安全,也有保障。城市问题解决了———除非你是生活在下游地区。

 

 

ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)





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