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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 2节选)

已有 1661 次阅读 2015-9-4 04:24 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,2| Water, chapter


 

2

The Bucket Era

第二章

桶的

The Western world was very different after the fall of the Roman Empire. Without Rome’s engineers, planners, and armies, cities faded into the background. Between 500 and 1400 CE, few places in Europ had populations that were greater than a fifth of thesize of Rome at its peak. To our modern eyes, most medieval cities would seem like rural towns surrounded by a protective wall.1 Houses were clustered intight rows to protect city dwellers from the winter cold. The attached houses created the familiar narrow streets and town squares of old Europe, but hidden behind their facades were spacious backyards, where city dwellers grew food and tended livestock. Orchards, pastures, and a scattering of open countryside started just outside of the walls, with plenty of open space for farming, which was the main occupation of most of the city’s residents.

罗马帝国衰落之后,西方世界与之前大相径庭。没有了古罗马的工程设计师军队,城市逐失去了昔日的亮色彩。公元500至1400年,欧洲很少有地方其人口模超过罗马鼎盛期人口的五分之一。用代的眼光看,大多数中世的城市不是由城着的偏僻小[1]。住房以密集的排式簇在一起,有助于居民度寒冷的冬天。些排屋造出古老欧洲典型的狭街道和城市广藏在些房屋后面的敞的庭院,那是市民耕种作物和养牲畜的所。果园、牧和零散分布的开田野是中世城市的常。城之外就是偏僻的村,那里有广袤的土地用于耕作,而耕种是当大多数市民的主要职业


In the early years, local sources provided enough water for the peopleof medieval cities. More often than not, a bucket was all that was needed. Because waterways were important as a means of transportation, many cities were located on rivers, which meant that residents could simply walk to the water’s edge to fill their buckets. If the nearest river was too far away, they would take their buckets to communal wells in the public square.

在中世早期,当地水源城市居民提供了足的水。只需要有个水桶一般就能足日常用水的需求。因水路在当是一种非常重要的运方式,很多城市就位于河意味着居民只需步行到河就能用水桶装水。如果离河流太,他就会拿着水桶到广的公用水井取水。

 

(Last two paragraphs of Chapter 2)

Although the collection of human wastes resulted in cleaner drinking water, it did not eliminate risks for pathogenic microbes. The Asian system ofcollection and distribution of night soil included a step in which wastes were aged. Yet although storing wastes for up to a year before putting them onfields may have reduced the smells and lowered the infectivity of the pathogens, it did not eliminate the risk of disease. Gastrointestinal illness was endemic among farmers and their families. Conditions were not as bad forcity dwellers who bought the produce, because before it was eaten it was cookedor pickled—practices that substantially reduced the risk of infection.

尽管人类粪便的收集使得用水得比较洁净,但并没有消除水中存在致病微生物的风险洲地区收集和便的系里有一个将便干的步。尽管便在撒到土地之前可能已经储存了达一年的时间,减少了臭味并降低了感染致病菌的概率,但并没有完全消除感染疾病的风险。胃病是民及其家庭成的疾病。而购买农产品的城市居民来,情况没有那么糟,因吃的农产品都经过或者腌制,些做法极大地减少了感染病菌的风险


As the urban populations in Europe continued to grow during the nineteenth century, some European cities struggled to develop approaches likethose being used in Asia for moving wastes to the countryside. Modern manufacturing processes led to the use of metal containers that fit onto the bottom of a toilet seat, rather than simple buckets, which simplified the collection of night soil and reduced the smell, and to the development of mechanical pumps that made it easier to remove wastes from cesspools. By the late nineteenth century, this system was also losing its economic appeal as other sources of fertilizer were discovered and popularized. Nevertheless, the protracted early struggle to remove wastes from city streets and to find water that had not yet been contaminated had set the course for the development ofthe maze of water and sewer pipes underneath our modern cities.

19世的欧洲,随着城市人口继续扩增,一些城市不得不努力开便运到村的途径;套方法与洲城市使用的方法大致相似。代制造工序促成了金属便桶的使用,不再需要用简单的木桶;仅简化了便的收集,可以减少便的臭味。代制造工序促成了机械展,使得从化池移除便更容易。到19世后期,由于其他来源的肥料的发现和推广,种原始便收集系随之失去其经济。然而,早期将人类粪便从街道清除以及找未受染水源的践,们现代城市路面底下错综排水系展确定了方向。

 

 

ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)

 



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