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科技英语写作基础(系列):分析abstract on HAB observing system

已有 1380 次阅读 2019-5-4 15:49 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语写作


Scaling Up from RegionalCase Studies to a Global Harmful Algal Bloom Observing System



Harmful algal blooms (HABs) produce local impacts in nearly allfreshwater and marine systems. 

[2] They are a global problem that requireintegrated and coordinated scientific understandingleading to regional responses and solutions. 

评论:应该是problem that requireS

[3] Given that these natural phenomena will never be completely eliminated, improved scientific understanding of HAB dynamics coupled with monitoring and ocean observations facilitates new prediction and prevention strategies. 

[4] Regional efforts are underway worldwideto create state-of-the-artHAB monitoring and forecasting tools, vulnerability assessments, and observing networks. 


[5] In the United States, these include Alaska, Pacific Northwest, California, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and the U.S. Caribbean islands. 


[6] This paper examines several regional programs in the United States, European Union, and Asia and concludes that there is no one-size-fits-all approach.


[7] At the same time, successful programs require strong coordination with stakeholders and institutional sustainabilityto maintain and reinforce them with new automating technologies, wherever possible,to ensure integration of modelling efforts with multiple regional to national programs. 

Recommendations for scaling up to a global observing system for HABs can be summarized as follows:

1) advance and improve cost-effective and sustainableHAB forecast systems that address the HAB-risk warning requirements of key end-users at global and regional levels;

2) design programs that leverage and expand regional HAB observing systems to evaluate emerging technologiesfor Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) in order to support interregional technology comparisons and regional networks of observing capabilities; 

3) fill the essential need forsustained, preferably automated, near real-time information from nearshore and offshore sites situated in HAB transport pathways to provide improved, advanced HAB warnings; 

4) merge ecological knowledge and models with existing Earth System Modelling Frameworks to enhance end-to-end capabilities inforecasting and scenario-building; 

5) provide seasonal to decadal forecaststo allow governments to plan, adapt to a changing marine environment, and ensure coastal industries are supported and sustainedin the years ahead; and 

评论:应该是seasonal-to-decadal forecasts

6) support implementation of the recent calls for action bythe United Nations Decade 2010 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to develop indicators that are relevant to an effective and globalHAB early warning system.



Keywords: Biodiversity, Phytoplankton, Biotoxin, Phycotoxins, Ecological forecasting, Early warning system, stakeholder engagement, Earth System Science (ESS)

Received: 12 Nov 2018; Accepted: 24 Apr 2019. 

Edited by: 

Frank E. Muller-Karger, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, United States

Reviewed by: 

Digna T. Rueda-Roa, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, United States 
Inia M. Soto Ramos, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi, United States  



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