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科技英语写作基础(系列):容易用错的词和词组(T开头)

已有 3603 次阅读 2018-12-23 06:05 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 词组


倒计时:2!

以T开头的词和词组,比较多。没有耐心的,可以分两次看 。

 

如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

为了“完整”性,我们继续用The Elements of Style 不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解(不是翻译)。

有时,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

IV Words and Expressions Commonly Misused 

第四部分(45-63页),我只挑其中一部分注解一下,因为我们是学习科技英语写作。如果你“喜欢”另外一些词,请告诉我。我会考虑补充。

 

Thanking you in advance. This sounds as if the writer meant, "It will not be worth my while to write to you again." In making your request, write "Will you please," or "I shall be obliged." Then, later, if you feel moved to do so, or if the circumstances call for it, write a letter of acknowledgment. 

Google Translate: 这听起来好像是作家的意思,“我再次写信给你是不值得的。”在提出您的请求时,请写下“请您愿意”或“我将被迫”。然后,如果您感到有兴趣,或者如果情况需要,请写一封确认函。

注解:原作者觉得不应该用这个表达方式。我觉得可以用。至少,我常用。

 

That.  Which. That is the defining, or restrictive, pronoun, which the nondefining, or nonrestrictive. (See Rule 3.) 

注解:that是引导限制性的从句。 which是引导非限制性的从句。

  

The lawn mower that is broken is in the garage. (Tells which one.) 

The lawn mower, which is broken, is in the garage. (Adds a fact about the only mower in question.) 

 

The use of which for that is common in written and spoken language ("Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass."). Occasionally which seems preferable to that, as in the sentence from the Bible. But it would be a convenience to all if these two pronouns were used with precision. Careful writers, watchful for small conveniences, go which-hunting, remove the defining whiches, and by so doing improve their work. 

Google Translate: 对此的使用在书面和口头语言中是常见的(“现在让我们去伯利恒,看看这个事情已经过去了。”)。偶尔看起来比较喜欢那样,就像圣经中的句子一样。但如果这两个代词精确使用,对所有人来说都是方便的。细心的作家,注意小便利,去寻找,去除定义的东西,并通过这样做改善他们的工作。

注解:在书面和口语中,常常会用which替代that。which-hunting(作者非常幽默)是说寻找which,看看是否应该用that替代which。

下面这篇博客也讲到这些从句:

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-306792-1148239.html

 

 

The foreseeable future. A cliche, and a fuzzy one. How much of the future is foreseeable? Ten minutes? Ten years? Any of it? By whom is it foreseeable? Seers? Experts? Everybody?

Google Translate: 陈词滥调,模糊不清。未来有多少是可以预见的? 10分钟?十年?任何一个?谁可以预见?西尔斯?专家?每个人?

注解:原作者跳脚啦!好在科技英语写作可以避免用这个词组。

 

The truth is.... The fact is.... A bad beginning for a sentence. If you feel you are possessed of the truth, or of the fact, simply state it. Do not give it advance billing. 

Google Translate: 一句不好的开头。如果你觉得自己被真相或事实所吸引,那就简单说明一下。不要提前结算。
注解:我,偷偷一笑。

 

 

They. He or She. Do not use they when the antecedent is a distributive expression such as each, each one, everybody, every one, many a man. Use the singular pronoun. 

Google Translate: 当前因是一个分配表达时,不要使用它们,例如每个人,每个人,每个人,每个人,许多人。使用单数代词。

注解:这个,政治性比较强。我,比较保守。常常用he/she, him/her.


错:Every one of us knows they are fallible. 

对:Every one of us knows he is fallible. 

注解:如果你看不懂上面的例句, 别介意


A similar fault is the use of the plural pronoun with the antecedent anybody, somebody, someone, the intention being either to avoid the awkward he or she or to avoid committing oneself to one or the other. Some bashful speakers even say, "A friend of mine told me that they...." 

Google Translate: 类似的错误是使用复数代词与先行者任何人,某人,某人,意图要么避免他或她的尴尬,要么避免将自己交给一方或另一方。一些害羞的人甚至说:“我的一个朋友告诉我他们......”

注解:有些人,为了避免性别错误,干脆用they代替he/she。不好。

 

The use of he as a pronoun for nouns embracing both genders is a simple, practical convention rooted in the beginnings of the English language. Currently, however, many writers find the use of the generic he or his to rename indefinite antecedents limiting or offensive. Substituting he or she in its place is the logical thing to do if it works. But it often doesn't work, if only because repetition makes it sound boring or silly. 

Google Translate: 使用他作为拥有两种性别的名词的代名词是一种根植于英语初期的简单实用的惯例。然而,目前,许多作家发现使用他或他的通用名来重命名无限期的前提,限制或冒犯。如果它有效,那么用他或她代替它是合乎逻辑的。但它通常不起作用,只是因为重复使它听起来很无聊或愚蠢。

注解:本来,he是可以代表he和she。这年头,什么都跟政治扯上了。唉。

作者给你们下面这些建议。

 

Consider these strategies to avoid an awkward overuse of he or she or an unintentional emphasis on the masculine: Use the plural rather than the singular. 

Google Translate: 考虑这些策略,以避免他或她的过度使用或无意中强调男性:
使用复数而不是单数。

注解:所以,能用they时,尽量不用单数。

 

The writer must address his readers' concerns. 

推荐:Writers must address their readers' concerns. 

  

Eliminate the pronoun altogether. 

注解:干脆不要代词。

 

The writer must address his readers' concerns. 

推荐:The writer must address readers' concerns. 

 

Substitute the second person for the third person. 

注解:用第二人称代替第三人称。

 

The writer must address his readers' concerns. 

推荐:As a writer, you must address your readers' concerns. 

 

No one need fear to use he if common sense supports it. If you think she is a handy substitute for he, try it and see what happens. Alternatively, put all controversial nouns in the plural and avoid the choice of sex altogether, although you may find your prose sounding general and diffuse as a result.

Google Translate: 如果常识支持,没有人需要害怕使用他。如果你认为她是一个方便的替代品,试试看看会发生什么。或者,将所有有争议的名词放在复数形式中并完全避免选择性别,尽管你可能会发现你的散文听起来很普遍并且因此而散布。

注解:注意一下,作者用了“No one need”,而不是“No one needs”。有意思。

 

This. The pronoun this, referring to the complete sense of a preceding sentence or clause, can't always carry the load and so may produce an imprecise statement. 

Google Translate: 这个代词,指的是前一句或条款的完整意义,不能总是承担负担,因此可能产生不精确的陈述。
注解:代词this容易误导读者,不知道是代“谁”。关于代词,参考一下:
http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-306792-1149057.html

 

 

Try. Takes the infinitive: "try to mend it," not "try and mend it." Students of the language will argue that try andhas won through and become idiom. Indeed it has, and it is relaxed and acceptable. But try to is precise, and when you are writing formal prose, try and write try to. 

Google Translate: 采用不定式:“试图修补它”,而不是“试着修补它”。该语言的学生将争辩说尝试并赢得了成语。确实它有,并且它是放松和可接受的。但是要尽量准确,当你写正式的散文时,试着去尝试。

注解:用try+to do(不定式)。有的美国学生会争辩:try andverb 已经大众化了。但是,还是应该用try+to do(不定式)。

 

Type. Not a synonym for kind of. The examples below are common vulgarisms. 

注解:不是kind of的同义词。下面的例子是常见的错误用法。

 

that type employee

建议:that kind of employee

I dislike that type publicity. 

建议:I dislike that kind of publicity.

 

有感而发:原作者没有敢提“the”,因为,这是一个几页纸都谈论不完的定冠词。

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

 

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

 

1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of Style Part I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落、语态、简洁性等,参考The Elements of Style

6.    一些容易用错的词和词组(参考The Elements of Style

7.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。

 

 




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