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科技英语写作基础(系列):容易用错的词和词组(O/P开头的) 精选

已有 5626 次阅读 2018-12-20 06:46 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 词组

悄悄地,朝着自己的目标前进!


如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

为了“完整”性,我们继续用The Elements of Style 不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解(不是翻译)。

有时,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

IV Words and Expressions Commonly Misused 

第四部分(45-63页),我只挑其中一部分注解一下,因为我们是学习科技英语写作。如果你“喜欢”另外一些词,请告诉我。我会考虑补充。

 

One.  In the sense of "a person," not to be followed by his or her. 

如果用于“一个人”,后面不要用his 或her。

 

错:One must watch his step.  (许多人不会介意这么用。)

对:One must watch one's step. (You must watch your step.) 

 

One of the most.  Avoid this feeble formula. 

注解:原作者觉得这个不够“大丈夫”气概。

"One of the most exciting developments of modern science is ..."; "Switzerland is one of the most beautiful countries of Europe." 

There is nothing wrong with the grammar; the formula is simply threadbare.

注解:语法没有错。但是,原作者认为这种词组太陈旧了。没关系,科技英语不需要赶时髦。

 

 

-oriented. A clumsy, pretentious device, much in vogue. Find a better way of indicating orientation or alignment or direction. 

Google Translate: 一种笨拙,自命不凡的设备,非常流行。找到更好的方法来指示方向或对齐方向。
注解:没关系,科技英语可以用。

 

It was a manufacturing-oriented company. 

推荐:It was a company chiefly concerned with manufacturing. 

 

Partially. Not always interchangeable with partly. Best used in the sense of "to a certain degree," when speaking of a condition or state: "I'm partially resigned to it." Partly carries the idea of a part as distinct from the whole —usually a physical object. 

Google Translate: 并不总是可以部分互换。在谈到条件或状态时,最好用于“在一定程度上”:“我部分地辞职了。”部分地表达了一个与整体不同的部分 - 通常是物理对象。

注解:AI又喝多了。Partially不完全等于partly。

 

The log was partially submerged. 

修改后:The log was partly submerged. 

 

Participle for verbal noun. 

There was little prospect of the Senate accepting even this compromise. 

There was little prospect of the Senate's accepting even this compromise. 

In the [first sentence], accepting is a present participle; in the second sentence], it is a verbal noun (gerund). The construction shown in the [first sentence] is occasionally found, and has its defenders. Yet it is easy to see that the second sentence has to do not with a prospect of the Senate but with a prospect of accepting.Any sentence in which the use of the possessive is awkward or impossible should of course be recast. 

Google Translate: 在[第一句]中,接受是现在的分词;在第二句]中,它是一个动词名词(gerund)。偶尔会发现[第一句]中所示的结构,并有其防御者。然而,很容易看出,第二句不得与参议院的前景相提并论,而是有接受的前景。任何使用占有欲尴尬或不可能的句子当然应该重新制作。

注解:关于现在分词和动名词,请看:

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-306792-1149235.html


例子:

In the event of a reconsideration of the whole matters becoming necessary 

推荐:If it should become necessary to reconsider the whole matter 

 

Personally. Often unnecessary. 

注解:废话。

Personally, I thought it was a good book. 

建议用:I thought it a good book. 

 

Possess.  Often used because to the writer it sounds more impressive than have or own. Such usage is not incorrect but is to be guarded against. 

Google Translate: 经常使用,因为对作者来说,它听起来比拥有或拥有更令人印象深刻这种用法并非不正确,但应加以防范。

注解:不要随便用。

She possessed great courage. 

建议用:She had great courage (was very brave). 

 

Presently. Has two meanings: "in a short while" and "currently." Because of this ambiguity it is best restricted to the first meaning: "She'll be here presently" ("soon," or "in a short time").

注解:有两个含“在短时间内”和“目前”。由于这种模糊性,我觉得最好别用。


Prestigious. Often an adjective of last resort. It's in the dictionary, but that doesn't mean you have to use it. 

Google Translate: 通常是最后的形容词。它在字典中,但这并不意味着你必须使用它。

注解:原作者不喜欢这个词。我,觉得White(原作者)有点太挑剔了。

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716


1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of StylePart I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落、语态、简洁性等,参考The Elements of Style

6.    一些容易用错的词和词组(参考The Elements of Style

7.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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