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科技英语写作基础(系列):容易用错的词和词组(H/I开头的) 精选

已有 3152 次阅读 2018-12-18 04:12 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 现在, 词组


原本不想注解这些词和词组,因为我不喜欢用“错误”的英语作为教材。结果,发现自己因此得益。因为帮助别人,结果帮助自己。这,已经不是第一次了,呵呵。不信?试一下!

 

如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

为了“完整”性,我们继续用The Elements of Style 不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解(不是翻译)。

有时,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

IV Words and Expressions Commonly Misused 

第四部分(45-63页),我只挑其中一小部分注解一下,因为我们是学习科技英语写作。如果你“喜欢”另外一些词,请告诉我。我会考虑补充。

 

Hopefully. This once-useful adverb meaning "with hope" has been distorted and is now widely used to mean "I hope" or "it is to be hoped." Such use is not merely wrong, it is silly. To say, "Hopefully I'll leave on the noon plane" is to talk nonsense. Do you mean you'll leave on the noon plane in a hopeful frame of mind? Or do you mean you hope you'll leave on the noon plane? Whichever you mean, you haven't said it clearly. Although the word in its new, free-floating capacity may be pleasurable and even useful to many, it offends the ear of many others, who do not like to see words dulled or eroded, particularly when the erosion leads to ambiguity, softness, or nonsense.

Google Translate: 这个曾经有用的副词意思是“带着希望”,已被扭曲,现在被广泛用来表示“我希望”或“它是希望”。这种使用不仅仅是错误的,而是愚蠢的。要说,“希望我会离开中午飞机”是胡说八道。你是说你会以充满希望的心态离开中午飞机吗?或者你是说你希望你会离开中午飞机?无论你的意思是什么,你都没有说清楚。尽管这个词具有新的,自由浮动的能力,但对许多人来说可能是令人愉快的,甚至是有用的,但它会让许多其他人感到不安,他们不喜欢看到语言变得迟钝或被侵蚀,特别是当侵蚀导致模糊,柔软或废话。

注解:谢天谢地,科技英语写作一般不会用hopefully。

 

However. Avoid starting a sentence with howeverwhen the meaning is "nevertheless." The word usually serves better when not in first position. 

Google Translate: 当意义是“不过”时,避免开始一个句子。当不在第一个位置时,这个词通常会更好。

注解:AI能翻译成这样,已经不错了。但是,读起来别别扭扭的。我学的是“老式”英语,不喜欢把however放在句首。

 

The roads were almost impassable. However, we at last succeeded in reaching camp. 

应该用:The roads were almost impassable. At last, however, we succeeded in reaching camp. 

评论:我觉得原作者的修改并不怎么样。你说呢?

 

When howevercomes first, it means "in whatever way" or "to whatever extent." 

Google Translate: 当它首先出现时,它意味着“以任何方式”或“在任何程度上”。

注解:好像不是一回事了。体会一下下面的例子。下面的however不是用于转折。

 

对的:However you advise him, he will probably do as he thinks best. 

对的:However discouraging the prospect, they never lost heart. 

评论:大家注意到没有,原作者常常给“一对”句子。(在pdf中,是一左一右。)但是,但是,不一定第一句一定是错的。看原版的要小心哦。

 

Imply. Infer. Not interchangeable. Something implied is something suggested or indicated, though not expressed. Something inferred is something deduced from evidence at hand. 

Google Translate: 不可互换。暗示的东西是建议或指示的东西,但没有表达。推断的东西是从手头的证据中推断出来的东西。

注解:AI好像比较有“科研”头脑。呵呵。体会一下这两个词的用法:

 

对的:Farming implies early rising. (imply)

对的:Since she was a farmer, we inferred that she got up early. (infer)


Importantly.Avoid by rephrasing. 

Google Translate: 避免改写。

注解:AI这次得F!原作者不喜欢用importantly。科技英语写作,可以用;但是,不要滥用。

 

More importantly, he paid for the damages. 

建议用:What's more, he paid for the damages. 

评论:我不喜欢科技英语用what's more。但是,你的文章,你做主。

 

In regard to.Often wrongly written in regards to. But as regardsis correct, and means the same thing.

注解:常常错写成in regards to。可以用as regards。

 

In the last analysis.A bankrupt expression.

Google Translate: 破产的表达。
注解:科技英语写作中,尽管用。

 

Inside of. Inside.The of followinginsideis correct in the adverbial meaning "in less than." In other meanings, of is unnecessary. 

Google Translate: 以下内容在状语意思是“小于”中是正确的。在其他含义中,是不必要的。

注解:AI体会不到斜体字的“含义”。Inside 带of,相当于in less than 。看例子:

Inside of five minutes I'll be inside the bank. 

注解:呃,这个,我不喜欢!

我会说:In less than five minutes, I will be inside the bank (to rob it). (Sorry, I was joking. Note: I added a comma, which is my dear friend.)

 

Insightful. The word is a suspicious overstatement for "perceptive." If it is to be used at all, it should be used for instances of remarkably penetrating vision. Usually, it crops up merely to inflate the commonplace. 

Google Translate: 对于“有洞察力”这个词是一种可疑的夸大其词。如果要使用它,它应该用于显着穿透视觉的情况。通常,它仅仅是为了夸大常见现象。

注解:科技英语中,可以用;但是,不要滥用。

That was an insightful remark you made. 

建议:That was a perceptive remark you made. (我不喜欢这句话。)

 

In terms of. A piece of padding usually best omitted. 

Google Translate: 通常最好省略一块填充。

注解:科技英语中常常用。尽管用!

 

The job was unattractive in terms of salary. (我觉得OK。)

建议:The salary made the job unattractive. 

 

Interesting. An unconvincing word; avoid it as a means of introduction. Instead of announcing that what you are about to tell is interesting, make it so. 

Google Translate: 一个令人难以置信的词;避免将其作为介绍手段。不要宣布你将要讲的内容很有趣,而是这样做。

注解:科技英语不需要用它。

 

An interesting story is told of (Tell the story without preamble.) 

通俗的注解就是:“有pi就放”。

 

Irregardless. Should be regardless. The error results from failure to see the negative in -lessand from a desire to get it in as a prefix, suggested by such words as irregular, irresponsible, and, perhaps especially, irrespective.

Google Translate: 应该不管怎样。这个错误是由于未能看到负面因素以及希望将其作为前缀而引起的,这种说法表现为不规则,不负责任,甚至可能特别是无关紧要。

注解:应该用regardless。

 

-ize. Do not coin verbs by adding this tempting suffix. Many good and useful verbs do end in -izesummarize, fraternize, harmonize, fertilize. But there is a growing list of abominations: containerize, prioritize, finalize,to name three. Be suspicious of -ize; let your ear and your eye guide you. Never tack -izeonto a noun to create a verb. Usually you will discover that a useful verb already exists. Why say "utilize" when there is the simple, unpretentious word use

Google Translate: 不要通过添加这个诱人的后缀来投入动词。许多优秀而有用的动词以-ize结尾:总结,兄弟,协调,施肥。但是,有越来越多的可憎行为:集体化,优先排序,最终确定,以及三个。怀疑-ize;让你的耳朵和你的眼睛引导你。永远不要强化到名词上来创造一个动词。通常你会发现一个有用的动词已经存在。当有简单,朴素的用词时,为什么要说“利用”呢?

注解:不要一高兴就加-ize创造一个动词!用use,不要用utilize。(现在人人用utilize,包括我的瑜伽老师!可恨!)

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716


1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of Style Part I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落、语态、简洁性等,参考The Elements of Style

6.    一些容易用错的词和词组(参考The Elements of Style

7.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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