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科技英语写作基础(系列):结尾

已有 1259 次阅读 2018-12-5 03:17 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 结尾


如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

为了“完整”性,我们继续用The Elements of Style 不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解。

另外,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

II. ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION 

21. In summaries, keep to one tense. 

文章的结尾

In summarizing the action of a drama, use the present tense. In summarizing a poem, story, or novel, also use the present, though you may use the past if it seems more natural to do so. If the summary is in the present tense, antecedent action should be expressed by the perfect; if in the past, by the past perfect. 

Google Translate: 在总结戏剧的动作时,请使用现在时。在总结诗歌,故事或小说时,也可以使用现在,但如果看起来更自然,你可以使用过去。如果摘要是现在时,则先行动作应以完美表示;如果在过去,过去完美。

注解:科技英语写作,有的作者用过去式,有的用现在式。如果用过去式写文章的总结(summary),可能会用到现在式,因为有的结论是“事实”(fact or truth)。陈述“事实” (fact or truth)时,应该用现在式。

 

22. Place the emphatic words of a sentence at the end. 

句子的结尾

The proper place in the sentence for the word or group of words that the writer desires to make most prominent is usually the end. 

Google Translate: 在作者希望最突出的单词或单词组的句子中的适当位置通常是结束。

注解:把“重要的单词或词组”放在句子的结尾。

Humanity has hardly advanced in fortitude since that time, though it has advanced in many other ways. 

修改后:Since that time, humanity has advanced in many ways, but it has hardly advanced in fortitude. 

 

This steel is principally used for making razors, because of its hardness. 

修改后:Because of its hardness, this steel is used principally for making razors. 

 

The other prominent position in the sentence is the beginning. Any element in the sentence other than the subject becomes emphatic when placed first. 

Google Translate: 句子中的另一个突出位置是开头。当放置第一个时,句子中除主题之外的任何元素都变得强调。

注解:也可以把“重要的单词或词组”放在句首。

Deceit or treachery she could never forgive. 

 

A subject coming first in its sentence may be emphatic, but hardly by its position alone. In the sentence 

Great kings worshiped at his shrine 

the emphasis upon kings arises largely from its meaning and from the context. 

Google Translate: 在句子中排在第一位的主题可能是强调的,但很难仅靠其立场。在句子中

Great kings worshiped at his shrine 

对国王的强调很大程度上源于其意义和背景。
  

To receive special emphasis, the subject of a sentence must take the position of the predicate. 

Through the middle of the valley flowed a winding stream. 

 
Google Translate: 要获得特别强调,句子的主语必须采用谓词的位置。

比如:Through the middle of the valley flowed a winding stream. 

 

The principle that the proper place for what is to be made most prominent is the end applies equally to the words of a sentence, to the sentences of a paragraph, and to the paragraphs of a composition. 

Google Translate: 最为突出的适当场所的原则是终点同样适用于句子的单词,段落的句子和作文的段落。
注解:上面讲的关于如何用“句尾”来强调一句话中的“某一个词”,也适用于下列情况:强调一句话中的“某一词组”,强调一段文字中的“某一句话”,或是强调一篇短文中的“某一段落”。

 

匆匆忙忙注解完第二部分,是因为怕“后悔”做这事(教科技英语写作)。毕竟,我不是学英语出生的 ,没有英语专业的任何学位。

此书后面的三个部分如何注解,让我头疼。但是,I will be back!

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

 

1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of StylePart I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落、语态、简洁性等,参考The Elements of Style

6.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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