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科技英语写作基础(系列):文章的段落

已有 1475 次阅读 2018-12-2 02:47 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 段落


如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

II. ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION 

 

我犹豫是不是“压缩一下”第13条“规矩”。可是,我喜欢原作者的风格,决定加注一些和科技英语写作有关的“教诲”。不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解。

另外,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

13. Make the paragraph the unit of composition. 

 文章是靠段落垒起来的。

 

The paragraph is a convenient unit; it serves all forms of literary work. As long as it holds together, a paragraph may be of any length —a single, short sentence or a passage of great duration.If the subject on which you are writing is of slight extent, or if you intend to treat it briefly, there may be no need to divide it into topics. Thus, a brief description, a brief book review, a brief account of a single incident, a narrative merely outlining an action, the setting forth of a single idea —any one of these is best written in a single paragraph. After the paragraph has been written, examine it to see whether division will improve it.

Google Translate: 该段是一个方便的单位;它服务于各种形式的文学作品。只要它保持在一起,段落可以是任何长度 - 单个,短句或持续时间很长的段落。如果您撰写的主题程度很小,或者您打算简单地对其进行处理,则可能没有必要将其划分为主题。因此,简要说明,简短的书评,单一事件的简要说明,仅仅概述一个行动的叙述,一个单一想法的阐述 - 其中任何一个最好写在一个段落中。在写完段落之后,检查它是否会改进它。
评论:AI的翻译,暂时还不靠谱。
注解:段落,好比盖房子用的砖。不管你写什么类型的文章,都一样需要段落。写完一段,可以看看是否太长,需要分为两段。

 

Ordinarily, however, a subject requires division into topics, each of which should be dealt with in a paragraph. The object of treating each topic in a paragraph by itself is, of course, to aid the reader. The beginning of each paragraph is a signal that a new step in the development of the subject has been reached.

Google Translate: 然而,通常情况下,主题需要划分为主题,每个主题都应在段落中处理。当然,处理段落中每个主题的目的是为了帮助读者。每一段的开头都表明已经达到了该主题发展的新步骤。

注解:AI喝多了。一般来说,文章(的话题)需要分几个主题来说明。每个段落围绕一个主题,这样可以帮助读者读懂。每一段的开头都应该表明这一段是“新的开始”。


As a rule, single sentences should not be written or printed as paragraphs. An exception may be made of sentences of transition, indicating the relation between the parts of an exposition or argument.

Google Translate:  通常,单个句子不应作为段落书写或打印。可以对过渡句子进行例外处理,指示陈述或论证的各部分之间的关系。
注解:避免 段落只有一句话。

 

In dialogue, each speech, even if only a single word, is usually a paragraph by itself; that is, a new paragraph begins with each change of speaker. The application of this rule when dialogue and narrative are combined is best learned from examples in well-edited works of fiction. Sometimes a writer, seeking to create an effect of rapid talk or for some other reason, will elect not to set off each speech in a separate paragraph and instead will run speeches together. The common practice, however, and the one that serves best in most instances, is to give each speech a paragraph of its own.

Google Translate: 在对话中,每个演讲,即使只有一个单词,通常也是一个段落;也就是说,一个新段落从发言者的每次变化开始。在对话和叙事相结合时,这一规则的应用最好从编辑良好的小说作品中的例子中学习。有时,作家试图创造快速谈话或其他原因的效果,将选择不在一个单独的段落中引发每个演讲,而是将一起演讲。然而,通常的做法是在大多数情况下最好的做法是给每个演讲一个自己的段落。

注解:上面这段,适用于写科幻小说。

 

As a rule, begin each paragraph either with a sentence that suggests the topic or with a sentence that helps the transition. If a paragraph forms part of a larger composition, its relation to what precedes, or its function as a part of the whole, may need to be expressed. This can sometimes be done by a mere word or phrase (again, therefore, for the same reason) in the first sentence. Sometimes, however, it is expedient to get into the topic slowly, by way of a sentence or two of introduction or transition.

Google Translate: 通常,每个段落都要用一个建议主题的句子或一个有助于过渡的句子。如果一个段落构成一个更大的组成部分的一部分,则可能需要表达它与前面的内容或作为整体的一部分的功能的关系。这有时可以通过第一句中的单词或短语(因此,出于同样的原因)来完成。然而,有时候,通过引言或过渡的一两句话缓慢地进入主题是有利的。

注解: 每一段的开头那句话,应该表明这一段的主题。但是,科技文章有section/subsection标题,不需要原作者提议的这种“过渡”。

  

In narration and description, the paragraph sometimes begins with a concise, comprehensive statement serving to hold together the details that follow. 

Google Translate: 在叙述和描述中,该段有时以简洁,全面的陈述开始,用于将随后的细节结合在一起。

注解: 这个适合科技英语写作。即,段落有时以简洁、全面的陈述开始。

 

The breeze served us admirably.

The campaign opened with a series of reverses.

The next ten or twelve pages were filled with a curious set of entries. 

注解:我们现在常常用英语表示0-9 (zero to nine),用阿拉伯数字表达10或者更大的数字。See

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-306792-682564.html

 

But when this device, or any device, is too often used, it becomes a mannerism. More commonly, the opening sentence simply indicates by its subject the direction the paragraph is to take. 

Google Translate: 但是,当经常使用这种设备或任何设备时,它就变成了一种习惯。更常见的是,开头句子只是通过其主题指出该段落的方向。
注解:再好的开头(方式),也不要多用。否则,就被用烂了。

 

At length I thought I might return toward the stockade.

He picked up the heavy lamp from the table and began to explore. 

Another flight of steps, and they emerged on the roof. 

 

In animated narrative, the paragraphs are likely to be short and without any semblance of a topic sentence, the writer rushing headlong, event following event in rapid succession. The break between such paragraphs merely serves the purpose of a rhetorical pause, throwing into prominence some detail of the action. 

Google Translate: 在动画叙事中,这些段落可能很短,没有任何主题句子的相似性,作者在事件发生后迅速连续冲过去。这些段落之间的断裂仅仅是为了一个修辞暂停的目的,突出了行动的一些细节。
注解:原来,小说作者就是这样搞定读者的。让读者“爱不释手”!

 

In general, remember that paragraphing calls for a good eye as well as a logical mind. Enormous blocks of print look formidable to readers, who are often reluctant to tackle them. Therefore, breaking long paragraphs in two, even if it is not necessary to do so for sense, meaning, or logical development, is often a visual help. But remember, too, that firing off many short paragraphs in quick succession can be distracting. Paragraph breaks usedonly for show read like the writing of commerce or of display advertising. Moderation and a sense of order should be the main considerations in paragraphing. 

Google Translate: 一般来说,记住段落需要良好的眼光和逻辑思维。巨大的印刷版块看起来很难读者,他们通常不愿意解决这些问题。因此,即使没有必要为感官,意义或逻辑发展而将长段落分成两部分,通常也是视觉上的帮助。但是请记住,快速连续发射许多短段可能会分散注意力。使用了段落仅用于展示阅读,如商务写作或展示广告。适度和秩序感应该是段落中的主要考虑因素。

注解:太长的段落不好,因为会让读者“害怕”。写博客也一样。今天,就到此为止。谢谢关注。

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

 

1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of StylePart I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落,参考The Elements of Style

6.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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