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科技英语写作基础(系列):分词短语 精选

已有 3184 次阅读 2018-12-1 03:28 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 分词短语

借用The Elements of Style ,我们在这里编译几个跟科技英语有关的例子。(Yes, I am cherry-picking.) 

如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版(免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

I. ELEMENTARY RULES OF USAGE 

11. A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the grammatical subject.  

分词短语用在句首时,其(隐含的)主语 是句子的主语。

Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two children. 

所以,上面的Walking slowly down the road=him walking slowly down the road。

The word walking refers to the subject of the sentence, not to the woman. To make it refer to the woman, the writer must recast the sentence. 

如果作者想说是那妇女walking slowly down the road,应该这样写:

He saw a woman, accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the road. 

 

这种分词短语,那怕前面还带上一些“萝莉啰嗦 ”的介词什么的 (preceded by a conjunction or by a preposition, nouns in apposition, adjectives, and adjective phrases),其隐含的主语依然是句子的主语。 

Participial phrases preceded by a conjunction or by a preposition, nouns in apposition, adjectives, and adjective phrases come under the same rule if they begin the sentence. 

错:On arriving in Chicago, his friends met him at the station. 

对:On arriving in Chicago, he was met at the station by his friends. 

 

错:Young and inexperienced, the task seemed easy to me. 

对:Young and inexperienced, I thought the task easy. 

 

错:Without a friend to counsel him, the temptation proved irresistible. 

对:Without a friend to counsel him, he found the temptation irresistible. 


如果不遵守这个“规则11”,会出笑话:

Sentences violating Rule 11 are often ludicrous:

Being in a dilapidated condition, I was able to buy the house very cheap. (说的是I am in a dilapidated condition. 呵呵。)

Wondering irresolutely what to do next, the clock struck twelve. (说的是The clock wondered irresolutely what to do next. 呵呵。)


The Elements of Style 的第一部分结束了。希望大家有空 常来坐坐。我还会接着注解第二部分。 


[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2) 

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

 

1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of Style  I 1-7)

4.    常用句型(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style

5.    段落(文章结构,参考The Elements of Style

6.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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