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科技英语写作基础(系列):代词 精选

已有 2943 次阅读 2018-11-30 03:26 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 代词

借用The Elements of Style ,我们在这里编译几个跟科技英语有关的例子。(Yes, I am cherry-picking.) 

如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版(免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

I. ELEMENTARY RULES OF USAGE 

 

10. Use the proper case of pronoun. 

 

代词比较神奇,因为它是“变色金刚”(做主语或宾语时,可能会“变”。)

The personal pronouns, as well as the pronoun who, change form as they function as subject or object. 

Will Jane or he be hired, do you think?

The culprit, it turned out, was he.

注解:如果你和老美交,你常常会听到:It was him. It was me. 千万不要去方,因为语言专家也认可了这种用法。参见:

https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/pronoun.asp

 

We heavy eaters would rather walk than ride. 

Who knocks?

Give this work to whoever looks idle. 

In the last example, whoever is the subject of looks idle; the object of the preposition to is the entire clause whoever looks idle. When who introduces a subordinate clause, its case depends on its function in that clause. 

用who还是用whom?这其实不难,主语用who,宾语用whom。而且,现在许多人根本不用whom,尤其是口语。Trust me. 

错:Virgil Soames is the candidate whom we think will win. 

对:Virgil Soames is the candidate who we think will win. [We think he will win.] 

 

错:Virgil Soames is the candidate who we hope to elect. 

对:Virgil Soames is the candidate whom we hope to elect. [We hope to elect him.] 

 

在“比较”时,我们常常会省略than后面的动词。

A pronoun in a comparison is nominative if it is the subject of a stated or understood verb. 

Sandy writes better than I. (Than I write.) (这里,I 后面的动词被“节约”了。)

土生土长的美国人,则常常会说:Sandy writes better than me.  我孩子练习SAT试题时,就问过我:妈妈,为什么me是错的?我说:因为I 后面的动词被省略了。

 

为了避免出错,最好不要省略than后面的动词。

In general, avoid "understood" verbs by supplying them. 

I think Horace admires Jessica more than I. 

最好用:I think Horace admires Jessica more than I do. 

Polly loves cake more than me. 

最好用:Polly loves cake more than she loves me. 

 

下面例句中的宾语都是对的。

The objective case is correct in the following examples.

The ranger offered Shirley and him some advice on campsites. 

They came to meet the Baldwins and us.

Let's talk it over between us, then, you and me. 

Whom should I ask? 

(对话中,你常常听到Who should I ask to attend our dinner party?)

 

Use the simple personal pronoun as a subject. 

Blake and myself stayed home. 

最好用:Blake and I stayed home. 

Howard and yourself brought the lunch, I thought. 

最好用:Howard and you brought the lunch, I thought. 

注解:Me and my mom + verb 是非常可爱的儿语。但是,一位18岁的小伙子再这么说,他的教授老爸可能会觉得自己失职了。

 

对不起,上面许多例子太常见了,我一不小心就忘了主题“科技英语”。下面这些“代词所有格”非常有用。但是,在科技英语写作中,几乎可以回避。

The possessive case of pronouns is used to show ownership. It has two forms: the adjectival modifier, your hat, and the noun form, a hat of yours. 

The dog has buried one of your gloves and one of mine in the flower bed. 

 

动名词常常出现在所有格:

Gerunds usually require the possessive case. 

Mother objected to our driving on the icy roads.

在分词则常常做宾语

A present participle as a verbal, on the other hand, takes the objective case. 

They heard him singing in the shower. 

 

下面例句中的“asking”看起来一样,但是,第一个asking是分词,第二个是动名词。两句话含义不同。

The difference between a verbal participle and a gerund is not always obvious, but note what is really said in each of the following. 

Do you mind me asking a question?  (分词)

Do you mind my asking a question?  (动名词)

好好体会一下?

关于它们含义不同的英文解释在这里:

In the first sentence, the queried objection is to me, as opposed to other members of the group, asking a question. In the second example, the issue is whether a question may be asked at all. 

说实话,改文章时,我有点怕看到代词it和that,因为有时不知道它是“指”什么。其实,有时候作者自己也稀里糊涂的。所以,我常常开玩笑说:如果你写文章写不下去时,不妨use itthat as a place holder

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

 

科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

 

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

 

1.    语态

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of Style  I 1-7)

4.    常用句型(主语谓语的“一致性”,参考The Elements of Style

5.    段落(参考The Elements of Style

6.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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