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认知气候工程(带 谷歌翻译狗上路)

已有 2814 次阅读 2017-1-14 04:12 |个人分类:Scientific Translation|系统分类:海外观察| 认知气候工程, 谷歌翻译狗


Understanding How Climate Engineering Can Offset Climate Change

Google Translate (GT): 了解气候工程如何抵消气候变化

Mine: 认知气候工程是怎样抵消气候变化的

Sixth Meeting of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project; Oslo, Norway, 21–22 June 2016

https://eos.org/meeting-reports/understanding-how-climate-engineering-can-offset-climate-change?utm_source=eos&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=EosBuzz011317

By BenKravitz, Alan Robock, and Jón Egill Kristjánsson 12 January 2017

Climate intervention, also called geoengineering orclimate engineering, is an emerging, important area of climate science research. This research focuses on deliberate climate modification to offset some of the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) was formed to better understand climate intervention through simulations conducted by multiple climate models.

GT: 气候干预,也称为地球工程或气候工程,是一个新兴的,重要的气候科学研究领域。本研究集中于故意气候变化,以抵消人为温室气体排放的一些影响。地球工程模型比较项目(GeoMIP)的形成是为了更好地了解气候干预通过多个气候模型进行的模拟。

Mine: 气候干预,也称为地球工程或气候工程,是一个新兴的、重要气候研究领域。该研究致力于人为气候干涉,以抵消人为温室气体排放的一些负面影响。地球工程模型比较(GeoMIP)是一个科研项目;它的目标是通过比较多个气候模式的模拟结果,来更好地认知气候干预。

GeoMIP held its sixth annual meeting at theUniversity of Oslo in Oslo, Norway, in June 2016. The meeting was held inconjunction with the Norwegian project Exploring the Potential and Side Effectsof Climate Engineering (EXPECT), which seeksto understand the implications of climate intervention and to stimulateinterdisciplinary collaboration among scientists in the natural and socialsciences.

Participants from a variety of natural sciencebackgrounds presented modeling results from multiple climate interventionmethods, including stratospheric aerosols,marine cloud brightening, cirrus thinning, and land and ocean brightening. Thefirst results from multimodel sea spray climate intervention simulations showedstrong features of commonality among the responses of different models.

GeoMIP continues to incorporate expertise fromnew areas. For example, this meeting was the first to present analyses of themodeled response of the ocean to GeoMIP simulations. Several scientists fromsocial science disciplines attended the meeting, and they provided broaderperspectives on the societal implications of the climate modeling results.

Of the approximately 35 participants, morethan one third were attending a GeoMIP meeting for the first time, in keepingwith the project’s interest in expanding its scope and providing a forum fornew ideas. Several new modeling and simulation concepts were presented to theGeoMIP Testbed, which is a forum for proposing new ideas to GeoMIP for possibleadoption. These new concepts include land albedo modification in ways that arereadily standardized across models, a proposal for idealized stratosphericaerosols, and simulations of localized ocean albedo modification.

Descriptions of these new areas of researchare being added to the GeoMIP website, which is the most up-to-datesource of information on past, present, and future simulation designs. Also onthe site are a timeline of start dates for the new simulations for CoupledModel Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and a current list of Testbedexperiments.

After the conclusion of the 1.5-day GeoMIPmeeting, EXPECT held an open forum in which natural and social science expertson climate intervention presented to the general public the current thinking ofthe research community. There were approximately 50 participants, includingGeoMIP attendees, other natural and social scientists, the media, and membersof the general public.

In the future, GeoMIP will continue itsmission of providing knowledge about key uncertainties in climate interventionresearch, particularly as an officially endorsed project under CMIP6. As newimportant areas of research emerge in this field, GeoMIP will continue toprovide a scientific focus for addressing important unknowns and a forum forconsideration of the full range of approaches to climate intervention.

We thank EXPECT, the Research Council ofNorway, and the U.S. National Science Foundation for financial support andBjørg Rognerud, Loretta Quinn, and the University Corporation for AtmosphericResearch for logistical and travel assistance.

One of our authors, Jón Egill Kristjánsson, tragically passed away in a hiking accident on14 August 2016. We dedicate this article to his memory and to his immense bodyof insightful, influential work on cloud modeling, aerosol-cloud interactions,and, most recently, cirrus thinning. His legacy of scientific contribution isindisputable, and those of us who had the privilege of working with him willmiss him greatly.

—Ben Kravitz (email: ben.kravitz@pnnl.gov),Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest NationalLaboratory, Richland, Wash.; Alan Robock, Department of Environmental Sciences,Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick; and Jón EgillKristjánsson, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Norway

Comments by Kenjwl

I can't think of anything more frightening than geoengineering as a solution to climate change unless iti nvolves converting atmospheric CO2 to something solid, useful or locked away.A ny attempt to change the earths ocean or atmosphere is fraught with danger and collateral damage. People involved in such schemes should look up the word hubris!




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