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【学术写作】引用证据实例 好用英语句型

已有 421 次阅读 2020-9-15 10:55 |个人分类:英文学术论文写作|系统分类:论文交流| 期刊论文, 学术论文写作, 英文论文写作, 期刊发表, 期刊投稿


在对我们研究进行的叙述过程中,利用证据和实例来阐释说明是一个重要组成部分。的确,作者在论文中所提供的说明,表意明确的话,能够帮助作者强化研究结论的准确性;而不恰当的表达,反而可能让读者对文章的研究结论心生怀疑。因此,使用适当且符合逻辑的句子引导读者理解论文的研究内容,是撰写论文时十分必要的能力。

1. 利用证据和实例的最佳时机

证据和实例为我们的说明打下一个稳定的基础。没有实例辅助的话,论文的结论缺乏可信度。不论是流水帐般的实例验证,还是无法提供任何材料或信息的来源,二者其实都一样糟糕的。因此,当你介绍实例时,需要确保适时睿智地挑选证据,并使用适当和清楚的句子来说明这个实例能够论证你的结论。当你在写作论文有以下几种需要时,你应该要介绍你的实例论证:

  • 说明“非普遍知识”的内容时 ;

  • 根据某个数据来引导结论、推论或说明涵义时;

  • 需要澄清一个先前的叙述,使用范例说明能够更加清楚的时候;

  • 需要找出某个类别的代表性范例;

  • 想要区分概念时;

  • 想要利用某个情况来强调某个特点时。

2. 相关句型使用建议

以下是根据功能的不同,我们列出了几个句型,虽然这个列表并不详尽,但至少能提供几个可以使用的短语类型。


2.1

目的 stating information that is not “common knowledge”

介绍性句型

  • [use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]

  • As [Author] indicated/stated/discovered

  • According to [Author],

范文

  • As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .

  • According to Marks and Peters . . .

2.2

目的 drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data

介绍性句型

  • suggests

  • as evidenced/suggested/indicated by

  • based on

  • can be seen/observed when

  • as seen in

  • which is made apparent when

  • is demonstrated by/through/when

  • hinges on

范文

  • The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .

  • As evidenced/suggested/indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .

  • Based on self-reported survey results . . .

  • This phenomenon can be seen/observed when wind speeds exceed . . .

  • As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .

  • The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .

  • The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .

  • This conclusion hinges on . . .

2.3

目的 clarifying a prior statement

介绍性句型

  • for example

  • for instance

  • by way of illustration

  • as an example

  • to clarify

  • to explain further

  • namely

  • to be specific

  • that is,

  • in other words,

范文

  • This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .

  • It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .

  • By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for . . .

  • As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .

  • To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .

  • To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .

  • Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.

  • To be specific, bull markets can . . .

  • That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .

  • In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .

2.4

目的 identifying representative examples of a category

介绍性句型

  • for example/instance

  • such as*

  • e.g.

  • one/another example

  • like*

  • excluding

  • including

  • an example being

*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.

范文

  • Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/instance.

  • The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.

  • The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).

  • One/another example of this exception is . . .

  • I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.

  • All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.

  • All stars, including our sun, . . .

  • Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .

2.5

目的 distinguishing concepts

介绍性句型

  • in a similar case

  • unlike the case of

  • in the same way

  • as a case in point

  • in a typical situation

  • in a normal scenario

范文

  • In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .

  • Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.

  • Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.

  • As a case in point, let's look at the situation in which . . .

  • In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .

  • In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .

2.6

目的 emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation

介绍性句型

  • for example

  • indeed

  • in fact

  • notably

  • markedly

  • as a case in point

范文

  • Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .

  • Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .

  • Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .

  • High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .

  • Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .

  • As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros . . .


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