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Altmetrics(替代计量学)用于学术论文评价

已有 6251 次阅读 2014-9-3 15:15 |个人分类:科学计量|系统分类:科研笔记


 替代计量学是Web 2. 0 环境下一种新兴的计量方法,目前主要通过补充性指标对论文的影响力进行评价。替代计量学的英文名称“Altmetrics”,也有将其译成“补充计量学”的,本文采用占多数的译法,即“替代计量学”。替代计量学的兴起是文章级评价(article-level metrics)、科研成果计量(eurekometrics)、科研发现计量(erevnametrics)、科学计量学2.0(scientometrics 2.0)等众多研究的合流,与科学交流的网络化密切相关。

  目前业界已有一些替代计量具体实践应用,并已作为应用服务提供,典型的包括:

  Altmetric.com:在数字科学Macmillan 的技术孵化器的支持下,Springer, Nature Publishing Group, Scopus 和BioMed Central 以及其他团体接受了Altmetrics。它跟踪社会媒体网站、新闻报纸,以及其他成千上万的学术论文的评论。Altmetric 根据:1. 一篇文章被个人谈论的数量;2. 这些讨论的发生场景(如一篇新闻报导、一个推客博文);3. 每个评论者多久讨论学术论文等,为每篇文章创建一组得分(Score),它是一个盈利组织。

  ImpactStory:ImpactStory 是加拿大开放指标服务,引文数据来源于加拿大国家科学图书馆,其优势在于数据的完整性。ImpactStory 是一款开源的,基于网络的工具,其开源代码地址是:https://github.com/total-impact

  Plum Analytics:Plum Analytics 旨在跟踪期刊论文、图书章节、数据集、演示内容以及软件代码等数据。它的重点产品提供定制报告,以量化部门生产力、支持议案,以及解决与其他影响力相关的问题。PlumX 是推销给大学和其他研究机构,来追踪研究者生产力的产品。

  PLOS 文章级指标工具:PLOS(Public Library of Science,科学公共图书馆数据库)开发和发布了Ruby on Rails 的应用程序,自2009 年投入使用。用来存储用户在科研论文上的数据。这个开源功能可以自定义对某篇特殊文章以及包括其他数据来源的派生指标,进行论文级别计量的追踪。部分指标如表1 所示。包括传统的引用计数,使用统计数据和补充计量。

  很多机构知识库平台都用使用统计数据,如下载次数和页面访问量作为指标,较少使用机构知识库报告被引计数和从社交网络中获取的替代计量指标。以下详细介绍目前最流行的三个机构知识库平台,Digital Commons,DSpace 以及EPrints 所用的使用统计数据。

http://www.edu.cn/tsg_6497/20140630/t20140630_1143976.shtml

 

PLOS期刊平台已用Altmetrics(替代计量学)对每篇学术论文评价。

http://www.plosone.org/

Do Altmetrics Work? Twitter and Ten Other Social Web Services

http://www.plosone.org/article/metrics/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064841

 

PLOS Article-Level Metrics的影响指标
使用:PLOS浏览、PDF下载、XML下载,PMC浏览、PDF下载
引用:PubMed Central、CrossRef、Scopus、Web of Science
社会书签与发布活动:CiteUlike、Mendeley、推特、脸书
媒体与博客覆盖:Nature博客、ScienceSeeker、研究博文、维基百科、引用通告(trackbacks)
讨论活动与评级:PLOS的评论、注释、评级

- Altmetric没有查到,列下它提供的四种工具
网页浏览、小书签(Bookmarklet)、API、网页嵌入(Badges)
可看下PLoS Impact Explorer:PLoS演示版

EBSCO Acquires Altmetrics Provider Plum Analytics

FROM

EBSCO acquires Plum AnalyticsEBSCO Information Services today announcedthe acquisition of Plum Analytics, the developer of PlumX, a tool that gives researchers and institutions a more complete view of the impact of their publications by harvesting and aggregating alternative metrics (altmetrics) data in five major categories: usage, captures, mentions, social media, and citations. Plum will continue to offer the same services, with the same management team, operating as a wholly-owned subsidiary of EBSCO. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

In a statement to the press, EBSCO Information Services President Tim Collins described altmetrics as an emerging field with ramifications for a variety of stakeholders.

“PlumX is able to provide a more timely and more thorough picture of the impact of research to researchers, institutions and publishers,” he said. “EBSCO is very excited to be entering what is a new product area for us.” (In a separate statement, EBSCO today announced that Collins will take the reins as CEO of EBSCO, following the retirement of F. Dixon Brooke.)

The backing of EBSCO “allows us to accelerate and do things bigger and faster than we have been,” Plum co-founder and Chief Product Officer Mike Buschman told LJ. “It’s really time for this area—altmetrics—to come of age, and this helps us get to that point.”

This coming of age narrative has been a brief one. Plum Analytics was founded just two years ago, in January 2012, by Buschman and Andrea Michalek, previously the director of product management and director of technology, respectively, for ProQuest’s Summon discovery service. The University of Pittsburgh was the first to adopt the service, and following a pilot test there, the company announced the official launch of PlumX in January 2013. In September 2013, the company partnered with OCLC to factor WorldCat data into its measurements. And in November, PlumX was named Most Ambitious inLJ’s Best Databases 2013.

The field itself isn’t much older. One of its formative texts, “Altmetrics: A Manifesto,” written byImpactStory founder Jason Priem and others, went online in October 2010.

Plum’s acquisition by EBSCO illustrates how quickly the use of altmetrics has gained traction and built credibility within the academic community. As “Altmetrics: A Manifesto” argued at the field’s inception, citation counting is still a useful way to gauge the impact of an academic article or other publication, but citations alone “are narrow; they neglect impact outside the academy, and also ignore the context and reasons for citation.” They’re also slow—it can take months or even years for an article to receive its first citation.

By contrast, altmetrics tools such as PlumX offer a broader view of a work’s impact, collecting data on how many times an article was mentioned on social media or on blogs by an author’s peers, or how many times it has been downloaded from databases, for example. These tools also enable researchers to understand the impact of work other than published, peer-reviewed articles, such as datasets, source code, videos, presentations, conference proceedings, and more. PlumX alone tracks more than 20 different types of research outputs.

“I’m a young academic at the start of my career, and my sense is that the metrics that are going to matter in the future might not be the ones that have mattered historically, or that in addition to those [historical] metrics, other metrics might matter,” Joel Gehman, Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Organization for the Alberta School of Business at the University of Alberta, told LJ. Gehman has been following the emergence of altmetrics for more than two years, and was one of the earliest testers of PlumX.

“It’s still an emerging market, so exactly what the field is, where its boundaries are, and how it will shake out remains to be seen,” said Gehman. Although altmetrics haven’t led to a sudden revolution in the way academia conducts its internal affairs, Gehman said that altmetrics do seem to be part of a shift in conversation regarding how a researcher’s influence might be assessed.

“We’re still not at a point where these tools are being widely used—to my knowledge—by tenure and promotion committees,” he added. “That’s something that is, perhaps, down the line. But I am aware of more and more conversations regarding those promotion and tenure activities, that are interested in what kinds of impact [scholars] are having not only in the academic community, but in the wider world…. These tools allow us to monitor and assess some of that other impact that our work might have.”

Researchers are already beginning to refine how they view the data that altmetrics tools collect. Buschman noted that couple of years ago, when people were first learning about altmetrics as a concept, some researchers thought that these tools would attempt to quantify the relative value of different metrics—does an article download equal 10 percent of a citation, or is a tweet equal to one-twentieth of a citation, for example?

“A lot of people are now past the ‘altmetrics = tweet impact’ or something like that,” Buschman said. “That was the way people shorthanded it, and it really did [the field] a disservice. It was easy to dismiss…. My article got published in Nature, so I tweet it out. You’re in my network, you retweet it to your network, but have you read it? In many cases, probably not, but you’re my buddy, so you’re trying to help get the word out. It’s a fundamentally different thing than an interaction with the research itself.”

Buschman added that one goal for PlumX going forward is to study whether certain measures, or certain combinations of different measures, are leading indicators of future citations.


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Today EBSCO Information Services (EBSCO) announced that PlumTM Analytics has become a wholly-owned subsidiary. We are excited about this big change because it will help us have the resources to realize the bright future we have for Plum Analytics, PlumXTM, and other products we envision.

We started Plum Analytics two years ago with a small investment from friends and family and a lot of big ideas, hopes and dreams (see our blog posting about the last two years). We’ve accomplished a lot in that time - we developed PlumX, won the Library Journal Most Ambitious Database of 2013 award,  acquired many customers, and significantly contributed to the conversation about altmetrics and research impact. Now, we are at the point where we need to grow and build the complete measure of research impact. We want to continue to develop and improve how we look at altmetrics via social media mentions and captures, but we want to go far beyond that humble beginning. We have big plans to continue expanding how we assess research impact including looking at usage and citations.

As a wholly-owned subsidiary, Plum Analytics will continue to operate as we have. That is, Mike Buschman and Andrea Michalek will still be at the helm guiding the direction of the company and the development of the products. The current engineering team will stay in place and will grow as well.

We want to express our gratitude to everyone who helped get us to this point. This includes our early funders who allowed us to start Plum Analytics before there was anything but our dreams. This includes our early employees who sacrificed a lot to work with us. This includes our early customers who took a chance that we would deliver on our promises and be around to support them (we did and we are!). This includes numerous unpaid advisors that helped us create and stick with plans. Without the support of all of these people we would not now be poised to accelerate our growth and break new ground for research impact.

We are excited about being associated with EBSCO for a number of reasons, but chiefly among them is that fact they too are grounded in libraries. As the wingman to researchers, measuring research impact has always been a part of the librarian’s charter. Given our mutual background in libraries and librarianship we know that this expertise will make our ability to deliver on products that help assess research impact stronger. Our library background is what created Plum Analytics and PlumX in the first place. It was important to us to find an acquisition partner that not only understood this, but shared the same background.

Another reason we are excited about our relationship with EBSCO is their relationship with the academic publishing world. As a company that is a trusted aggregator and is therefore publisher-neutral, it is a perfect pairing for us as we look forward to expanding our role in helping publishers with research impact.

We hope our supporters are excited about this new change for Plum Analytics. If you have any questions please email us or come visit us at ALA Midwinter in Philadelphia where we will be at booth 1871. We will continue to tweet, blog and send newsletters as before, so you can keep following us as you always have.

UPDATE:

Below are some links related to this announcement that you might find interesting:

EBSCO Acquires Altmetrics Provider Plum Analytics  - TheDigitalShift by Matt Enis, January 15, 2014

Plum Analytics Acquired by EBSCO - Blog post by Joel Gehman, January 15, 2014



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