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武漢檢疫站

已有 1601 次阅读 2020-2-4 17:38 |系统分类:人文社科

武漢檢疫站醫院1936年成立,主要工作對途經武昌、漢口、漢陽等揚子江上下游的中外船隻的物品、人員進行消毒滅菌、檢疫、治療、接種疫苗等, 用熏蒸等方法消滅船隻和貨物中有害寄生生物,檢驗船員及旅客的身體狀況和霍亂、白喉、腦膜炎、鼠疫等流行病情況並採取接種疫苗、隔離治療等等措施 , 以下是抄錄和翻譯的1936年武漢檢疫站的一份檢疫報告的部分內容,:


Apart from routine activties two events marked the work of this Station during 1936,namely ,the establisment of a quarantine hospital in Wuhan and the extension of fumingation work to up-riever  ports.


1936年,除日常活动外,还有两件事标志着该站的工作,即在武汉建立了一所检疫医院,并将熏蒸工作扩展到上游口岸。


After nearly five year's up-hill work, with the Station thrown practically upon its own resources, we have at last succeeded in equipping a quarantion hospital which,though inadequate and imperfect in many respects,yet serves a useful purpose.


经过近五年的艰苦工作,我们终于成功地装备了一所检疫医院,尽管在许多方面还不够完善,但仍有一定的用处。


Through the generosity of the Inspector General of Coutoms (Sir Fredesick Maze) and the local Commissioner of Customs (Mr.W.R.Myers),and the assistance of the Dirctor,Dr.Wu Lien-teh,an empty building belonging to the Customs at Hanyang was leased at the nominal figure of $1.00 per annum for five years beginning July 12,1936.


在Fredesick Maze爵士检察长和当地海关专员W.R.Myers先生的慷慨帮助下,在总监吴连德博士的协助下,汉阳海关的一栋空置大楼从1936年7月12日起五年内以每年1.00美元的名义出租。


The new hospital, thoroughly renovated, consists of a two-storeyed brick structure with large front garden,situated along rooms on the ground floor are fitted up as medical officer's examination room,laboratory and pharmacy, male ward,and female ward.


新医院经过彻底整修,由两层砖结构和大花園的前院组成,沿着一楼的房间布置有医务人员检查室、实验室和药房、男病房和女病房。


Other rooms are turned into quarters for the officers. There is accommodation for ten beds,and an outpatient clinic was opened on August 15. A resident doctor and nurse are in charge. The disadvantage of the hospital lies in its situation which is a long distance from the quarantine anchorage;hence incoming steamers are invisble from the building. the ideal site for a quarantine station would be on the Hankow Bund at Tan-sui-chi.


其他的房间变成了工作人員的宿舍。有10张床位的住宿,8月15日开了一家门诊。住院医生和护士负责。这家医院的缺点在于它离检疫锚地很远,因此从大楼里看不到进港的轮船。理想的检疫站位置是在汉口外滩的Tan-sui-chi。


Fumigation work at Chungking was initiated  in May and after an interval was renewed in November. Altogether 72 vessels were fumigated at that port with sulphur gas. Both the local Customs and shipping agents(especially the Ming Sung Industrial Company)cooperated with this Station to render the work successfui.


重庆的熏蒸工作于5月开始,11月又延长了一段时间。在那个港口共有72艘船用硫磺气熏蒸。当地海关和船务代理(特别是 Ming Sung 实业公司)都与该站合作,使工作取得了成功。


As a result of the unusually low level of the middle Yangtze River towards the end of the year (a striking contrast to the spate of waters leading to the disatrous floods of 1931), ofdinary navigation by most river steamers became impossible. Launches,bugs,motor boats and lighters were therefore used for transhipment of cargo and passengers to points higher up. This activity threw an additional burden upon our fumigation staff,as these small craft had to be fumigated as required by the quaranttine regulations.


由于临近年底揚子江水位异常低(与1931年导致洪灾的洪水形成鲜明对比),大多数江河轮船无法实现双向航行。因此,汽艇、摩托艇等被用来转运货物和乘客到更高处。这项活动给我们的熏蒸工作人员带来了额外的负担,因为这些小艇必须按照检疫条例的要求进行熏蒸。



 

QUARANTINE ACTIVITIES


检疫活动


These include:collection of communicable disease statistics,fumigation and disinfection of cargoes and vessels, medical inspection of vessels, fat-flea survey, vaccination and inoculation, issuance of bills of health and certificates for transportation of coffins with corpse,medical services,etc.


其中包括:传染病统计资料收集、货船熏蒸消毒、船舶医学检验、脂肪蚤调查、疫苗接种、签发健康证和带尸棺材运输证明、医疗服务等。


Collection of communicable disease statistics


传染病统计资料收集


Data regarding communicable diseases in Wuhan were collcted through the same channels as in former years, viz. by sending postcards to the hospital in Wuhan and requesting them to report to this Stationg every Saturday. Not a single case of cholera  occurred in Wuhan in 1936,although typhoid and dysentery cases were numerous. There were only 14 cases of smallpox as against 112 in 1935. Cerebro-spinal meningitis occurred sporadically with 107 cases, being fewer than the previous year. Diphtheria was prevalent with 84 patients(Table I)


通过与往年相同的渠道收集武汉的传染病数据,即向武汉的医院寄送明信片,要求他们每周六到该站报告。1936年,尽管伤寒、痢疾病例众多,武汉却没有一例霍乱病例。与1935年的112例相比,只有14例天花病例。偶尔发生脑脊髓膜炎107例,较前一年减少。84例患者出现白喉(表一)


Fumigation and disinfection


熏蒸和消毒


Besides fumigation in Hankow, this Station has succeeded in setending the work to Chungking. A  total of 72 vessels was fumigated there. In Hankow 480 vessels were treated with sulphur dioxide gas,making a grand total of 552 vessles,(121,763 tons). 


除汉口的熏蒸外,该站还成功地将工作開展到了重庆。 那里总共熏蒸了72艘船。 在汉口,用二氧化硫气体处理了480艘船,总计552艘船(121,763吨)。


18 vessels(7,076 tons) were granted deratiation  exemption certificates after satisfactory rat infestation inspctions.


18艘船只(7,076吨)经鼠患测试合格后,获发灭鼠豁免证书。


319 dead rats were recobered after fumigation. No signs of plagus were found on examination. The record of five year'fumigation work may be tabulated as follows:


熏蒸后回收了319只死鼠。 在检查中没有发现鼠疫的迹象。 五年熏蒸工作的记录可以列表如下:


 Snap 2020-02-04 at 16.51.01.png


*Including those exempted.


包括豁免者。


Two vessels were disinfected during the year.  They were s.s."Paowo"of Jardines and C.L."Yinhung's"case is as follows:


在这一年(1936年)中,对两个船舶进行了消毒。 他们分别是Jardines的“ Paowo”和C.L.“ Yinhung”的情况如下:


We were informed  by the River Inspector of Customs on April 9 that 2 members of the crew of C/L"Yinhung"were suffering from cerebro-spinal meningitis and were requested to take immediate action to prevent its spread ashore.

4月9日海关巡视员通知我们,“银航”轮2名船员患脑脊膜炎,要求我们立即采取行动,防止其向岸上蔓延。


The living quarters of the sick men (who were sent to hospital)were disinfected.Throat swabs of 18 contact among the crew were taken and sent to the Catholic Hospital laboratory found 7 of the 18 specimens sent strongly positive .


病人(被送往医院)的生活区进行了消毒。工作人员中18名接触者的咽拭子被取走并送往公教医院实验室,在18个样本中发现7个呈强阳性。


These 7 men were suspected to be the carriers and were ordered under surveillance .The vessel was ordered  into quarantine on the other side of the river till the 20th when the second examination of throat swabs sheowed negative results.


这7名疑似病人被怀疑是携带者,并受到监视。命令该船被隔离在河对岸,直到20日後,第二次咽拭子检查结果均为阴性。


 A socend thorouth disinfection of every compartment of the vessel was performed before she was relrased .Since meningitis is not quarntinable disesse as prescribed in the Chinese Quarantine Regulation ,all these measures were taken at the request of River Inspector’s  Office of the Customs.


在解除隔離之前,已对船舶的每个舱室进行了第二次消毒。由于脑膜炎不是1936年《中国检疫条例》的规定項目,因此所有这些措施均是自海关河检查员办公室的要求采取。


Disinfection of old gunny  bags etc.--As from December 25,1935,viz.3 months after our notification ,old gunng bags and such like materials imported from abroad have to be accompanied by valid certificates of disinfection  issued from the port of origin ,othewise materials of disinfection issued from the port of origin ,otherwise disinfection was done by this Station .A total of 137 packages consistings of 5,480 old gunny bags,imported were disinfected with foemalin during the year under review.

旧麻袋消毒等——自1935年12月25日起。我们通知后3个月,老麻袋和类似材料从国外进口必须伴随着有原产地港口簽發的效消毒证书,材料不从原产地港口的消毒,消毒就是由本站進行。今年進口共有137包包含5480旧麻袋包装,進行福爾馬林消毒。


Medical inspection of vessels 


船只的医疗检查


Twenty-five vessls with a total tonnage of 145,979 were boarded during the year.Among these ,12were British ,9 Norwegian ,2 Japanese ,1 Chinese and 1 Greek.------


年内登船的船舶总数为25艘,总吨位为145,979。其中,有12艘是英国,9艘挪威,2艘日本,1艘中国和1艘希腊。------




1936年武漢檢疫站的全體人員合影




漢口錨地檢查船員流行病情況及防疫宣教




漢口錨地接種霍亂疫苗




收集熏蒸消殺後輪船寄生生物


80多年前的武漢檢疫站條件和設備相對簡陋,對於檢疫和控制流行病蔓延起到了一定的作用。這是武漢檢疫站的文獻資料,請醫學專家和學者們參考!願武漢的瘟疫蔓延盡快遏制根除!







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