劉 煒分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/daozhen 大道之行也天下為公



已有 1967 次阅读 2020-2-4 17:38 |系统分类:人文社科

武漢檢疫站醫院1936年成立,主要工作對途經武昌、漢口、漢陽等揚子江上下游的中外船隻的物品、人員進行消毒滅菌、檢疫、治療、接種疫苗等, 用熏蒸等方法消滅船隻和貨物中有害寄生生物,檢驗船員及旅客的身體狀況和霍亂、白喉、腦膜炎、鼠疫等流行病情況並採取接種疫苗、隔離治療等等措施 , 以下是抄錄和翻譯的1936年武漢檢疫站的一份檢疫報告的部分內容,:

Apart from routine activties two events marked the work of this Station during 1936,namely ,the establisment of a quarantine hospital in Wuhan and the extension of fumingation work to up-riever  ports.


After nearly five year's up-hill work, with the Station thrown practically upon its own resources, we have at last succeeded in equipping a quarantion hospital which,though inadequate and imperfect in many respects,yet serves a useful purpose.


Through the generosity of the Inspector General of Coutoms (Sir Fredesick Maze) and the local Commissioner of Customs (Mr.W.R.Myers),and the assistance of the Dirctor,Dr.Wu Lien-teh,an empty building belonging to the Customs at Hanyang was leased at the nominal figure of $1.00 per annum for five years beginning July 12,1936.

在Fredesick Maze爵士检察长和当地海关专员W.R.Myers先生的慷慨帮助下,在总监吴连德博士的协助下,汉阳海关的一栋空置大楼从1936年7月12日起五年内以每年1.00美元的名义出租。

The new hospital, thoroughly renovated, consists of a two-storeyed brick structure with large front garden,situated along rooms on the ground floor are fitted up as medical officer's examination room,laboratory and pharmacy, male ward,and female ward.


Other rooms are turned into quarters for the officers. There is accommodation for ten beds,and an outpatient clinic was opened on August 15. A resident doctor and nurse are in charge. The disadvantage of the hospital lies in its situation which is a long distance from the quarantine anchorage;hence incoming steamers are invisble from the building. the ideal site for a quarantine station would be on the Hankow Bund at Tan-sui-chi.


Fumigation work at Chungking was initiated  in May and after an interval was renewed in November. Altogether 72 vessels were fumigated at that port with sulphur gas. Both the local Customs and shipping agents(especially the Ming Sung Industrial Company)cooperated with this Station to render the work successfui.

重庆的熏蒸工作于5月开始,11月又延长了一段时间。在那个港口共有72艘船用硫磺气熏蒸。当地海关和船务代理(特别是 Ming Sung 实业公司)都与该站合作,使工作取得了成功。

As a result of the unusually low level of the middle Yangtze River towards the end of the year (a striking contrast to the spate of waters leading to the disatrous floods of 1931), ofdinary navigation by most river steamers became impossible. Launches,bugs,motor boats and lighters were therefore used for transhipment of cargo and passengers to points higher up. This activity threw an additional burden upon our fumigation staff,as these small craft had to be fumigated as required by the quaranttine regulations.





These include:collection of communicable disease statistics,fumigation and disinfection of cargoes and vessels, medical inspection of vessels, fat-flea survey, vaccination and inoculation, issuance of bills of health and certificates for transportation of coffins with corpse,medical services,etc.


Collection of communicable disease statistics


Data regarding communicable diseases in Wuhan were collcted through the same channels as in former years, viz. by sending postcards to the hospital in Wuhan and requesting them to report to this Stationg every Saturday. Not a single case of cholera  occurred in Wuhan in 1936,although typhoid and dysentery cases were numerous. There were only 14 cases of smallpox as against 112 in 1935. Cerebro-spinal meningitis occurred sporadically with 107 cases, being fewer than the previous year. Diphtheria was prevalent with 84 patients(Table I)


Fumigation and disinfection


Besides fumigation in Hankow, this Station has succeeded in setending the work to Chungking. A  total of 72 vessels was fumigated there. In Hankow 480 vessels were treated with sulphur dioxide gas,making a grand total of 552 vessles,(121,763 tons). 

除汉口的熏蒸外,该站还成功地将工作開展到了重庆。 那里总共熏蒸了72艘船。 在汉口,用二氧化硫气体处理了480艘船,总计552艘船(121,763吨)。

18 vessels(7,076 tons) were granted deratiation  exemption certificates after satisfactory rat infestation inspctions.


319 dead rats were recobered after fumigation. No signs of plagus were found on examination. The record of five year'fumigation work may be tabulated as follows:

熏蒸后回收了319只死鼠。 在检查中没有发现鼠疫的迹象。 五年熏蒸工作的记录可以列表如下:

 Snap 2020-02-04 at 16.51.01.png

*Including those exempted.


Two vessels were disinfected during the year.  They were s.s."Paowo"of Jardines and C.L."Yinhung's"case is as follows:

在这一年(1936年)中,对两个船舶进行了消毒。 他们分别是Jardines的“ Paowo”和C.L.“ Yinhung”的情况如下:

We were informed  by the River Inspector of Customs on April 9 that 2 members of the crew of C/L"Yinhung"were suffering from cerebro-spinal meningitis and were requested to take immediate action to prevent its spread ashore.


The living quarters of the sick men (who were sent to hospital)were disinfected.Throat swabs of 18 contact among the crew were taken and sent to the Catholic Hospital laboratory found 7 of the 18 specimens sent strongly positive .


These 7 men were suspected to be the carriers and were ordered under surveillance .The vessel was ordered  into quarantine on the other side of the river till the 20th when the second examination of throat swabs sheowed negative results.


 A socend thorouth disinfection of every compartment of the vessel was performed before she was relrased .Since meningitis is not quarntinable disesse as prescribed in the Chinese Quarantine Regulation ,all these measures were taken at the request of River Inspector’s  Office of the Customs.


Disinfection of old gunny  bags etc.--As from December 25,1935,viz.3 months after our notification ,old gunng bags and such like materials imported from abroad have to be accompanied by valid certificates of disinfection  issued from the port of origin ,othewise materials of disinfection issued from the port of origin ,otherwise disinfection was done by this Station .A total of 137 packages consistings of 5,480 old gunny bags,imported were disinfected with foemalin during the year under review.


Medical inspection of vessels 


Twenty-five vessls with a total tonnage of 145,979 were boarded during the year.Among these ,12were British ,9 Norwegian ,2 Japanese ,1 Chinese and 1 Greek.------









16 郑永军 尤明庆 范振英 朱晓刚 高江勇 吴嗣泽 张鹰 王从彦 李学宽 张叔勇 戎可 刘钢 汪育才 宁利中 杨正瓴 李俊臻

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)


Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2021-6-14 03:57

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社