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[转载]Economic Transition and Entrepreneur Development in China

已有 89 次阅读 2017-11-28 14:56 |个人分类:经济|系统分类:观点评述|文章来源:转载

One of the most prominent features of China’s transition from a centrally planned economy to

a market-based economy is the emergence of entrepreneurship, although previous literature

discusses this phenomenon descriptively rather than prescriptively. In this article, we consider

entrepreneurship developments in China since the end of the 1970s and argue that the role of

entrepreneurship in the economy has changed considerably over the last four decades. Our perception

is that initially, China’s entrepreneurship development stemmed from China’s economic

transition, but currently, entrepreneurship is both influenced by and influences economic development.

We propose a conceptual model of the role of entrepreneurship in China’s contemporary

economy, which we test using a unique database for 31 Chinese regions during the period from

1997 to 2009. Our analysis shows that two types of entrepreneurial organizations (siyingqiye and

getihu) in China play important but distinct roles in stimulating China’s economic development.

The Chinese economy has gone through major transitions in the last decades, where a substantial

part of economic activity has shifted from state-owned sectors to private sectors. China has transitioned from a tightly centrally-planned economy to a market-oriented economy that continues

to be shaped by the government’s long-term economic development plan and entrepreneurship focus

(cf. Huang 2010). Policies have accelerated China’s economic development by making important adjustments in the areas of education, national innovation system, economic openness, market function, infrastructure investment, and more. This transition cycle, with a great leap in economic growth, has run for more than three decades and still plays a critical role in China’s economic growth. One important characteristic of this economic and institutional transition, we

argue, is the attitude transition in acknowledging entrepreneurship while developing from a factor-driven economy to an efficiency-driven economy in the past 30 years, and now towards the innovation-driven stage. These developments are not independent of each other with entrepreneurship undoubtedly contributing to China’s fascinating economic growth.

Since the late 1970s, Chinese entrepreneurship has experienced three generations of organizational

forms: commune and brigade enterprises,Township and Village enterprises (TVE), and finally,the emergence of private firms such as getihu and siyingqiye. Commune and brigade enterprises, as the first generation, were designed by the central government to deal with the negative economic consequences of China’s Cultural Revolution (1966 to 1976), particularly in non-agricultural industries.This organizational form did not function in the Chinese economy longer than a decade. It was then replaced by the second generation, TVEs, which were characterized by shared ownership of local government and collectives. Similarly, TVEs faced tremendous questioning on its ownership and nature as private firms. Though they contributed significantly to China’s economy in the late 1980s (20% of China’s gross output), TVEs were terminated, and gradually replaced by the third generation of organizational forms in the late 1980s: getihu and siyingqiye.

Getihu (in Chinese) are private businesses that are registered at the Chinese Industry and Commerce Office in the enterprise category with no more than seven people hired as employees.2 In

June 1988, the Chinese central government added a new provision on private enterprise (TSPE), stipulating that a business with privately owned assets and more than seven employees could be registered as another form of private enterprise called siyingqiye (in Chinese). Getihu are restricted to only using individual or household assets for business operations but enjoy the privilege of registering with a shorter procedure and wider cognitive acceptance.3 In contrast,

siyingqiye are given much more relaxed conditions in terms of more allowed sources of registered

capital (e.g., shareholders can come from outside of the entrepreneur’s family). However, siyingqiye are required to hold a fixed amount of registration capital, which translates to higher start-up costs. As a result of these differences, getihu are often smaller than siyingqiye in terms of organizational size.



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