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已有 1315 次阅读 2019-4-25 09:15 |系统分类:观点评述|文章来源:转载

Intelligence Trap: Why Clever People Make Stupid Mistakes


Jenni Russell

So here is an unnerving discovery.   I am not the calm rational discriminating   person that I hope to be. It didn't take much to discover this; just my   answers to a couple of quick questions. Here's the first how many pairs of animals did Moses take on the ark

And the second Jack is looking at Anne but Anne is looking at George. Jack is married   but George is not. Is a married person looking at an unmarried person

It took me no seconds at all to   answer the first; I couldn't but thought the Bible would tell me. What I didn't spot because I was too busy looking at the end of the question and not the   premise was that the answer   is zero. Moses wasn't busy building any arks; that was Noah.

As for Anne George and Jack I swiftly concluded we couldn't know because we hadn't been told the status of Anne. I was of course wrong.   If I had stopped to draw two diagrams of Jack Anne and George looking at one another with an unmarried Anne in the first diagram and a married one in the   second I would have seen   that in either case a married person was indeed looking at an unmarried one.

This is what a new wide-ranging book by the science writer David Robson has dubbed The   Intelligence Trap our tendency to assume that general intelligence leads to good thinking.   It doesn't. It doesn't protect us from cognitive biases like the ones I've   just demonstrated. Indeed Robson shows our confidence in the efficiency of our brains often makes us more   vulnerable to foolish judgments.

People with high IQs drink more   heavily may take more   illegal drugs and are almost   twice as likely as everybody else to hit credit card limits. They have the   same rates of bankruptcy and missed mortgage payments as everybody else   despite having better-paid jobs. Intelligent educated people are less likely to question their assumptions to learn from their mistakes to take advice or reverse their decisions when they discover new facts.   Instead they use their brainpower to ingeniously defend their original   positions.

These tendencies lead us into disastrous   and avoidable situations. In health 15 per cent of all hospital diagnoses are wrong often because they are made swiftly and rarely rethought meaning that more people die from misdiagnoses than from diseases like   breast cancer. In business a reluctance to think through consequences question optimism or challenge decisions leads to a myriad of uncounted   collapses and some major disasters.

Robson's term for these failures   is functional stupidity and his thesis is that these errors could be largely avoided if we could   recalibrate our approach to problems. The intelligence trap is he says largely a cultural   phenomenon. Western culture prizes swift decisions certainty dominant leadership   and simple answers. From school onwards we are taught to memorise what we've   been told put our hands up   fast jump to conclusions argue our case convincingly persuade others to follow. It's a common route to success but it's a   dangerously limited way to operate particularly in our hugely complicated world.

The key insight is our pressing   need to deploy intellectual humility open-mindedness curiosity and wide consultation rather than the blind stubbornness and grandstanding that so often   passes for judgment. It's never been more necessary to recognise and release   ourselves from the intelligence trap.










关键的一点是,我们迫切需要调动理智的谦逊、开放的思维、好奇心与广泛的磋商,而不是经常被当成判断力的盲目固执与哗众取宠。承认并让自己摆脱智力陷阱从没有这么必要过。 (李凤芹译自英国《泰晤士报》网站3月28日文章)






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