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[转载]Technology, Medicine & Health, Chemistry news(Jan. 16)

已有 984 次阅读 2015-1-17 19:21 |个人分类:新科技|系统分类:博客资讯|关键词:Technology,,Medicine,&,amp,,Health,,Chemistry,,news| Medicine, Chemistry, Health, amp, Technology |文章来源:转载

Nanotechnology news
Solving an organic semiconductor mystery

Organic semiconductors are prized for light emitting diodes (LEDs), field effect transistors (FETs) and photovoltaic cells. As they can be printed from solution, they provide a highly scalable, cost-effective alternative to silicon-based devices. Uneven performances, however, have been a persistent problem. Scientists have known that the performance issues originate in the domain interfaces within organic semiconductor thin films, but have not known the cause. This mystery now appears to have been solved.

New “triggered-release” mechanism could improve drug delivery

More efficient medical treatments could be developed thanks to a new method for triggering the rearrangement of chemical particles.

Nanoparticles for clean drinking water

One way of removing harmful nitrate from drinking water is to catalyse its conversion to nitrogen. This process suffers from the drawback that it often produces ammonia. By using palladium nanoparticles as a catalyst, and by carefully controlling their size, this drawback can be partially eliminated. It was research conducted by Yingnan Zhao of the University of Twente's MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology that led to this discovery.

Technology news
Japan researchers target 3D-printed body parts

Japanese scientists say they are on their way to being able to create custom-made skin, bone and joints using a 3D printer.

Virtual traffic lights as in-car systems go with the real road flow

Researchers have been working on a system of virtual traffic lights positioned inside the car which could give time back to commuters. For workers who make their way through daily traffic, the proposal is interesting enough: traffic lights on a windshield to get you home faster. Virtual traffic lights appear on the driver's dashboard and explain with green and red arrows in which direction they can safely travel but they disappear once the junction has been crossed, said a report in CNN.

Planning algorithms evaluate probability of success, suggest low-risk alternatives

Imagine that you could tell your phone that you want to drive from your house in Boston to a hotel in upstate New York, that you want to stop for lunch at an Applebee's at about 12:30, and that you don't want the trip to take more than four hours. Then imagine that your phone tells you that you have only a 66 percent chance of meeting those criteria—but that if you can wait until 1:00 for lunch, or if you're willing to eat at TGI Friday's instead, it can get that probability up to 99 percent.

Aztec app brings historic Mexico codex into the digital age (Update)

A 16th century document considered one of the most important primary sources on the Aztecs of pre-Columbian Mexico went digital Thursday with a new app that aims to spur research and discussion.

Funding boom shows power of tech startups, raises concerns

Venture capitalists poured a whopping $48.3 billion into U.S. startup companies last year, investing at levels that haven't been seen since the heady days before the dot-com bubble burst in 2001.

Researchers shake California warehouse with 50 tons of force

It's one thing to simulate an earthquake on a model structure inside a laboratory. It is another to rattle a standing California building with 50 tons of force.

How one of the world's largest archives is managing the move from parchment to pixels

From the Domesday Book to modern government papers, the National Archives' collection of more than 11m historical government and public records is one of the world's largest. It includes paper and parchment, photographs, maps and paintings, but also a vast number of digital records such as archived government websites, emails and social media posts. Paper may last for thousands of years, but what about the ever-expanding quantity of digital documents?

Artificial Intelligence should benefit society, not create threats

Some of the biggest players in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have joined together calling for any research to focus on the benefits we can reap from AI "while avoiding potential pitfalls". Research into AI continues to seek out new ways to develop technologies that can take on tasks currently performed by humans, but it's not without criticisms and concerns.

UK arrests man in Sony Playstation and Xbox attack

Authorities in Britain have arrested an 18-year-old man accused of computer hacking offenses related to days of disruption on Sony's PlayStation Network and Microsoft's Xbox Live services last year.

As Austin grows, so does its traffic woes

Ask any Austinite what they enjoy least about the city, and many will mention the escalating traffic issues. According to Forbes, Austin is one of the fastest growing cities in the U.S., and without a transportation infrastructure equipped to handle the explosion of new transplants, it also ranks as one of the cities with the worst traffic congestion.

New York Post says some of its Twitter accounts hacked (Update)

A New York Post spokeswoman said some of the newspaper's Twitter accounts were briefly hacked Friday.

Twitter hackers announce 'World War III'

Hackers took over Twitter accounts of the New York Post and United Press International on Friday, writing bogus messages, including about hostilities breaking out between the United States and China.

US kept international call data for over decade: report

The US Justice Department maintained a secret database of Americans' international phone calls for more than a decade before ending the program in 2013, The Wall Street Journal reported Friday.

$1B Switch data center near Reno will be world's biggest

The largest lithium battery factory in the world is getting a new neighbor at an industrial park east of Reno—the world's biggest data center.

US defense argues wrong man accused as Silk Road kingpin

Defense lawyers for Ross Ulbricht, the alleged mastermind of online criminal enterprise Silk Road, sought to convince New York jurors that the wrong man was in the dock.

US factory output rises 0.3 percent in December

U.S. factory production rose in December as manufacturers churned out more furniture, computers and clothing, offsetting a decline in autos.

Audiologists help set the stage for better theater sound experience

As the lights dim, a low rumble can be heard advancing from the front of the theater to the back as the powerful bass speakers kick on. Theaters tune their sound systems to be physically felt by theatergoers to draw them into the experience, but for individuals with hearing loss this can be more alienating than inclusive.

IBM study details the future of automotive industry

During the Automotive News World Congress this week, IBM revealed results of its new Automotive 2025 Global Study, outlining an industry ripe for disruptive changes that are breaking down borders of the automotive ecosystem. The study forecasts that while the automotive industry will offer a greater personalized driving experience by 2025, fully autonomous vehicles or fully automated driving will not be as commonplace as some think.

Making the internet accessible to everyone

The ways in which we access the internet are expanding, placing hurdles in the way of those with sensory impairments as they try to get the most out of their online experience. The EU's CLOUD4ALL project is taking on the challenge of improving accessibility for people with special needs. Its work will help those concerned get the health and public services they need, along with improving their chances on the job market and preventing social exclusion.

Medicine & Health news
Closing your eyes boosts memory recall, new study finds

In a new study, published today in the journal Legal and Criminology Psychology, researchers from the University of Surrey have found further evidence to suggest that eyewitnesses to crimes remember more accurate details when they close their eyes. The team also discovered that building a rapport with witnesses also helped them to remember more.

Rare mutations do not explain 'missing heritability' in asthma

Despite a strong suspected link between genetics and asthma, commonly found genetic mutations account for only a small part of the risk for developing the disease - a problem known as missing heritability.

Neuroscientists investigate how 100 billion nerve cells produce a clear thought or an action

We have approximately 100 billion nerve cells in our brains, all of which communicate with one another. Why do they lead to clear thoughts or purposeful actions instead of mere gibberish? The reason lies, among other things, in a small group of inhibitory nerve cells that can use the messenger GABA to curb the activity of other nerve cells. The neuroscientists Dr. Michael Strüber and Prof. Dr. Marlene Bartos from the University of Freiburg and their colleague from Vienna Prof. Dr. Peter Jonas have discovered that the distances between communicating cells play a part in the regulation of brain networks. The team presents this approach in the current issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Study details a link between inflammation and cancer

A new study from MIT reveals one reason why people who suffer from chronic inflammatory diseases such as colitis have a higher risk of mutations that cause cancer. The researchers also found that exposure to DNA-damaging chemicals after a bout of inflammation boosts these mutations even more, further increasing cancer risk.

Research sheds new light on the hierarchy of the senses

When people converse in their day-to-day lives, they often speak about what they hear, smell, taste or feel. First and foremost, however, they talk about their visual perceptions. This is the conclusion of a team of scientists headed by Lila San Roque, Kobin H. Kendrick, Elisabeth Norcliffe and Asifa Majid at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen in the Netherlands, who conducted a study of 13 languages from around the world. However, they found no evidence of a fixed hierarchy of the other senses in the speakers' linguistic usage. They therefore conclude the hierarchy of the senses is shaped by both biological predispositions and cultural influences.

Statins inhibit spread of some cancers in laboratory tests

Cholesterol-lowering drugs appear to be a promising, cost-effective way to reduce the risk of metastases in some cancers, according to laboratory research led by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Metastases, rather than the original tumor, are what usually kill people with cancer.

A little help from your friends just increases pain

Maybe misery doesn't love company. When physical pain is involved, having an equally suffering friend nearby just makes you feel worse, according to a study published online Thursday in the journal Current Biology.

Is it possible to reset our biological clocks?

Imagine being able to easily get over all of the discomfort and problems of jet lag or night-shift work. Science is not quite there, but recent work by Marc Cuesta, Nicolas Cermakian and Diane B. Boivin from the Douglas Mental Health University Institute and McGill University has opened new therapeutic avenues for improving the synchronization of the body's different biological clocks.

Vitamin A deficiency may be involved in type 2 diabetes

Investigators have long sought the answer to a vexing question: What are the biological mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 diabetes? A recent study from Weill Cornell Medical College researchers suggests that the culprit may be a lack of vitamin A, which helps give rise to the cells, called beta cells, in the pancreas that produce the blood sugar-regulating hormone insulin.

New genetic clues found in fragile X syndrome

Scientists have gained new insight into fragile X syndrome—the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability—by studying the case of a person without the disorder, but with two of its classic symptoms.

One in five adults with epilepsy also has ADHD symptoms

(HealthDay)—Nearly one in five adults with epilepsy also has symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study finds.

Unhealthy insulin levels may boost breast cancer risk

(HealthDay)—After menopause, unhealthy insulin levels may predict breast cancer risk even more than excess weight, new research suggests.

Gene-based spit test shows promise in lung cancer detection

(HealthDay)—Medicare indicated recently that it might soon cover CT scans to check longtime smokers for early lung cancer, and these types of scans are becoming more common.

Review highlights anesthetic implications of Ebola virus

(HealthDay)—Recommendations are presented for anesthetic care in patients with Ebola virus disease and published online Dec. 30 in Anesthesia & Analgesia.

Light therapy seems promising for nonspecific back pain

(HealthDay)—For adults with chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP), light therapy is associated with reduction in pain intensity and improvement in depressive symptoms, according to a study published in the December issue of Pain Medicine.

Polycaprolactone efficient for nasolabial fold treatment

(HealthDay)—For patients with nasolabial folds (NLFs), treatment with a novel biostimulatory polycaprolactone (PCL)-based dermal filler is associated with improved long-lasting efficacy compared with nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA)-based fillers. This finding was published online Jan. 6 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology.

Patient-selected audio therapy may ease pediatric post-op pain

(HealthDay)—Going through a surgery often means postoperative pain for children, but listening to their favorite music might help ease their discomfort, according to a new study published online Jan. 3 in Pediatric Surgery International.

China diagnosed 104,000 new HIV/AIDs cases in 2014: report

China diagnosed 104,000 new cases of HIV/AIDS in 2014, media reported Friday, highlighting growth in infections in the country despite a comparatively low overall rate.

Q&A: Measles pops up in outbreak linked to Disney parks

Measles cases have been popping up around California in an outbreak linked to visits to Disney theme parks in Orange County during the winter holiday.

Separating a student from their iPhone can be bad for their health and for their brain

If you forgot your phone at home, you may get a sense of being incomplete in some way, the itch you just can't scratch each time you reach for your absentee phone. Our phones have become such integral part of our lives that they feel like they are part of us. Your phone is where your mind goes during a less than captivating business meeting, a boring class, or a family function. Surely you are missing something – a text, an Instagram update, a tweet from Kanye. The possibilities are endless.

Does coconut oil live up to the hype?

Every month there seems to be a new "superfood" that is promoted heavily on the Internet and TV talk shows and endorsed by semi-celebrities. But rarely has a food gone through as dramatic a transformation from dietary villain to superhero as coconut oil and, indeed, all things coconut.

Engineers enlarge brain tissue to study nanoscale features

While most efforts to understand the brain focus on new technologies to magnify small anatomical features, engineers at the MIT-based Center for Brains, Minds and Machines have found a way to make brains physically bigger.

Human mode of responding to HIV vaccine is conserved from monkeys

The antibody response from an HIV vaccine trial in Thailand was made possible by a genetic trait carried over in humans from an ancient ancestry with monkeys and apes, according to a study led by Duke Medicine researchers.

Research confirms need to support student-athlete mental health

A pilot program designed to raise awareness and encourage discussion about mental health issues among student-athletes at the University of Michigan has been met with an overwhelmingly positive response, a U-M team told the NCAA today.

A new way of improving tuberculosis treatment rejected

Tuberculosis kills 1.5 million people across the world every year. The existing treatment is effective but long. Many patients abandon it before completion, increasing the risk of a relapse and favouring the emergence of drug resistance in the bacillus responsible. Cutting down the duration of treatment is the priority for researchers. A team from IRD and a number of other international institutions has just published the results of a 10-year long clinical trial carried out in five African countries and involving a shorter regimen, in the New England Journal of Medicine. However, this regimen has proven to be less effective than the standard treatment. Scientists are now pursuing their research into alternative medicinal therapies, drawing on the vast network of skills developed during this clinical trial, the first of its kind for over thirty years.

Study questions linkage between body image, labiaplasty, and pornography

Preliminary research into the relationship between pornography and genital satisfaction has found women are generally content and were not considering drastic cosmetic surgery to their genitals.

Two mechanisms work in tandem to form memories of frightening events

The formation of memories of fearful experiences involves not only changes in brain wiring, but also the action of a chemical known as noradrenaline, shows a study led by researchers from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute. This understanding has enabled the researchers to artificially implant a fear memory in rats.

Enzyme linked to respiratory system development in fruit flies comes from another organ

Research from the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology has revealed that development of the respiratory system in fruit flies is controlled by a regulatory enzyme that is manufactured in the fat body—the fly's equivalent of the liver. This finding supports the broad role of the fat body in supplying essential enzymes involved in embryonic development.

How to avoid bogus health information on the web

Health is one of the biggest topics searched for on the web, yet despite its importance a large portion of this information is inaccurate, anecdotal or biased.

Scientists discover gene tied to profound vision loss

An exhaustive hereditary analysis of a large Louisiana family with vision issues has uncovered a new gene tied to an incurable eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa, according to an examination led by scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). It is a family of eye diseases that affects more than 200,000 people in the United States and millions worldwide.

Scientists spot gene linked to tanning 'addiction'

(HealthDay)—Snowbirds who flock south in winter in search of the warmth of the sun, listen up:

Women underrepresented in leadership roles in ob-gyn

(HealthDay)—Women are underrepresented in leadership roles in obstetrics and gynecology, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Defensive medicine common among surgeons, radiologists

(HealthDay)—Defensive medicine is commonly practiced among surgeons and radiologists in Austria, according to a study published online Jan. 6 in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.

Impact of medical scribes on EHR advancement discussed

(HealthDay)—The increasing use of medical scribes should not be a replacement for improving electronic health records (EHRs), according to a viewpoint piece published online Dec. 15 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

BPA exposure affects heart health of males and females differently in mouse models

Heart function and blood pressure in mice exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) from birth though young adulthood are affected differently in males and females, with females at greater risk of damage from stress, a study from a University of Cincinnati (UC) researcher has found.

Exploring the use of alcohol-interactive prescription medication among US drinkers

Approximately 71 percent of American adults drink alcohol. While alcohol interacts negatively with a number of commonly prescribed medications, little is known on a population level about the use of alcohol-interactive (AI) prescription medication among US drinkers. A new study has found that almost 42 percent of drinkers in the US population have used one or more alcohol-interactive prescription medications.

Adolescents who sleep poorly and insufficiently may develop alcohol and drug problems

Sleep difficulties and insufficient sleep are common among American youth. Prior research has shown that poor sleep can predict alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults in high-risk samples. A new study has found that sleep difficulties and hours of sleep can predict a number of specific problems, including binge drinking, driving under the influence of alcohol, and risky sexual behavior in a nationally representative sample.

Genes and environment contribute to personal and peer drinking during adolescence and beyond

Alcohol use typically begins during adolescence, within social contexts, and is often correlated with the drinking of one's peers. A new study of how a person's drinking is related to the alcohol use of their peers from early adolescence through to early adulthood has found that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the correlation between one's own drinking and peer drinking.

Pre-sleep drinking disrupts sleep

For individuals who drink before sleeping, alcohol initially acts as a sedative - marked by the delta frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) activity of Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) - but is later associated with sleep disruption. Significant reductions in EEG delta frequency activity and power also occur with normal development between the ages of 12 and 16; likewise this is a time when alcohol is commonly consumed for the first time, with dramatic increases in drinking occurring among collage-age individuals. A study of the effects of alcohol on sleep EEG power spectra in college students has found that pre-sleep drinking not only causes an initial increase in SWS-related delta power but also causes an increase in frontal alpha power, which is thought to reflect disturbed sleep.

Recipient of novel stem cell treatment 'well', doctor

A woman treated with a revolutionary embryonic stem-cell therapy for severe heart failure is doing well three months after the operation, her cardiologist reported Friday.

Rare virus discovered in common tick

(HealthDay)—A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common in the southeastern United States.

Review: venlafaxine may be effective for fibromyalgia Tx

(HealthDay)—Venlafaxine seems to be effective for the treatment of fibromyalgia, although studies are limited by small sample size and methodological concerns, according to a review published in the February issue of the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.

Discectomy-related information on internet deemed poor

(HealthDay)—Discectomy-related information on the Internet is poor and of variable quality, according to a study published in the Jan. 15 issue of Spine.

Caffeine doesn't affect cardiac conduction, refractoriness in SVT

(HealthDay)—For patients with symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), caffeine is associated with increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but does not impact cardiac conduction or refractoriness, according to a study published in the January issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology.

Unhealthy dietary behaviors linked to functional dyspepsia

(HealthDay)—Unhealthy dietary behaviors are associated with refractory functional dyspepsia (RFD), according to a study published in the December issue of the Journal of Digestive Diseases.

CRP/ESR disagreement common in infection, inflammation

(HealthDay)—For patients with suspected infection or inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP)/erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) disagreement is common, according to a study published online Dec. 31 in the International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases.

Teenage acne linked to melanoma in women

(HealthDay)—There appears to be an association between teenage acne and melanoma, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in Cancer.

Active breathing coordinator beneficial in RT for left breast CA

(HealthDay)—For patients with left breast cancer, radiation therapy with the Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) can reduce the mean heart dose (MHD) by 20 percent or more, while preserving local control, according to a study published in the January-February issue of Practical Radiation Oncology.

Four-times daily ASA more effective in post-CABG patients

(HealthDay)—For patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, four-times daily acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) seems more effective than once-daily 81 mg or 325 mg ASA, according to a study published online Dec. 27 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Michigan autoworkers fare worse when it comes to the heart

A Michigan State University study is the first to indicate that the state's autoworkers are at a higher risk of heart disease compared to the U.S. population overall.

Stem cells derived from amniotic tissues have immunosuppressive properties

Stem cells derived from human amnion have for some time been considered promising for cell therapies because of their ease of access, ability to differentiate, and absence of ethical issues. Now, a Japanese research team has found that stem cells derived from human female amnion also have immunosuppressive activity and that the addition of antibodies to specific factors can enhance their immunosuppressive potential.

Complaints procedures have a serious impact on doctors' health and risk harming patients

Doctors who are the subject of complaints procedures or investigation by the General Medical Council experience high rates of serious depression and anxiety as well as suicidal thoughts, according to a new study.

Red Cross nurse dies from Ebola in Sierra Leone

A nurse working for the Red Cross in Sierra Leone has died of Ebola in the eastern district of Kenema, where no new cases had been reported for 37 days, the organisation said Thursday.

Schools in Guinea closed amid Ebola to reopen Monday

All schools in Guinea will reopen on Monday after being closed amid the deadly Ebola outbreak, Guinea's health minister said Friday.

Holistic assessment needed for wheelchair users with multiple sclerosis

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) need to be holistically assessed when being offered an electric wheelchair, a study at Brunel University London has found.

NHS cancer treatment improves – but more needs to be done

New NHS figures show that, despite improvements, there are still significant differences in outcomes for cancer patients when it comes to age and socio-economic background.

Study identifies impacts of women's socio-economic status on infant health

A new report from the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study, led by researchers at Trinity College Dublin, provides evidence of the profound influence of early life environment on children's subsequent health and identifies implications for policy-makers.

To tackle inequalities, build health into all public policies

Many of today's public health issues – diabetes, cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease – are strongly associated with social inequalities. Literature from across the world shows that gaps in income, employment, education and access to acute and preventative health care worsen health outcomes for disadvantaged populations. When the inequalities are avoidable and based on unjust distributions of resources, for example, it then becomes an issue of health inequity.

Medicare chief steps down, ran health care rollout

Medicare's top administrator unexpectedly resigned Friday, becoming the latest casualty in the turmoil over the president's health care law, which is still struggling for acceptance even as millions benefit from expanded coverage.

EU partners with pharmaceutical industry to fight Ebola

The EU will partner with the European pharmaceutical industry to finance 215 million euros in research projects to fight Ebola, mainly to develop vaccines and diagnostic tests, it announced Friday.

Novartis to close manufacturing plant in Puerto Rico by 2019

Novartis AG is closing its manufacturing plant in Puerto Rico as part of a major overhaul of its business, the company said in a statement Friday.

Dramatic decline in risk for heart attacks among HIV-positive Kaiser Permanente members

Previously reported increased risk of heart attacks among HIV-positive individuals has been largely reversed in recent years for Kaiser Permanente's California patients, according to a study published in the current online issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Aetna picks Gilead Sciences hepatitis C drugs over AbbVie's

Insurer Aetna has made new hepatitis C drugs from Gilead Sciences Inc. preferred treatments for customers with the liver-destroying virus.

Egypt reports 3rd bird flu death this year

An Egyptian woman died Friday of bird flu, the health ministry announced, the third victim killed in the country this year by the H5N1 infection.

Chemistry news
How does a machine smell? Better than it did

Every odor has its own specific pattern which our noses are able to identify. Using a combination of proteins coupled to transistors, for the first time machines are able to differentiate smells that are mirror images of each other, so called chiral molecules, something that has not been possible before. The human nose can distinguish between some of these molecules and the different forms of the same molecule of carvone, for example, can smell either like spearmint or caraway. Previous machines would not have been able to distinguish between the two.

Researchers find salmon semen can be used to extract rare earth elements from waste

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers affiliated with several academic/research facilities in Japan has found that dried salmon semen can be used to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from liquid ore waste. In their paper published in the journal PLOS ONE, the team describes how they came up with the idea, the process they used, and the prospects of using their technique in commercial applications.

Cool crystals and hot climates

A crystalline structure used by a silkworm virus to protect itself from the elements may provide similar protection for human vaccines in challenging tropical climates and remote regions.




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