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[转载]Technology, Medicine & Health, Chemistry news(Dec. 23, 2014)

已有 2646 次阅读 2014-12-24 11:16 |个人分类:新科技|系统分类:博客资讯|关键词:Technology,,Medicine,&,amp,,Health,,Chemistry,,news| Medicine, Chemistry, Health, amp, Technology |文章来源:转载

Nanotechnology news

Crown ethers flatten in graphene for strong, specific binding

Ethers—simple organic molecules in which an oxygen atom bridges two carbon atoms—are the chemical building blocks of commonplace products including many solvents, propellants, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Link them together in large molecular rings and they become scientific royalty—crown ether molecules, whose development led in large part to the 1987 Nobel Prize in chemistry. These crown-shaped rings are important as the initial prototype in host–guest chemistry, a field in which "guest" ions and molecules can be captured within the cavity of a "host" molecule. This capability allows chemists to organize a collection of separately weak bonding interactions, such as the electrostatic bond between an ether oxygen atom and a metal ion, to achieve strong, selective binding. This useful property, called "molecular recognition," is employed for separations, sensing and catalysis.

Graphene offers X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy a window of opportunity

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the most sensitive and informative surface analysis techniques available. However, XPS requires a high vacuum to operate, which makes analyzing materials in liquid and gaseous environments difficult.

Technology news
New programming language automatically coordinates interactions between Web page components

A Web page today is the result of a number of interacting components—like cascading style sheets, XML code, ad hoc database queries, and JavaScript functions. For all but the most rudimentary sites, keeping track of how these different elements interact, refer to each other, and pass data back and forth can be a time-consuming chore.

Continental works on infrared for car multi-touch

Using infrared technology, gesture-control features might find their way into the "affordable" market segment. Automotive supplier Continental, with an eye on the future, is working on intelligent infrared technology for control designs—in "affordable" cars. Continental said the technology will be ready for series production in 2017. The company is out to show that multi-touch gesture features are not beyond the budgets of those who will limit themselves to small, affordable vehicles. Infrared curtains can replace more expensive touch displays, said the company. With infrared curtains,

Airplanes finally go hybrid-electric

An aircraft with a parallel hybrid engine – the first ever to be able to recharge its batteries in flight – has been successfully tested in the UK, an important early step towards cleaner, low-carbon air travel.

How big data could reduce weather-related flight delays

Next year's holiday travelers may see fewer delays thanks to research now being conducted by a team of University of Michigan engineers.

Indiegogo project NANOPLUG – Offering the world's smallest hearing aid

A small team of researchers and engineers has developed the Nanoplug and have created an Indiegogo project to further develop what they describe as the world's first invisible hearing aid. First conceived by Nevena Zivic and then brought to fruition by industrial designer, Jongha Lee, audio engineer Mladen Stavri and electromechanical engineer Zoran Marinovic, the Nanoplug is meant to be less intrusive than other hearing aids, less noticeable (the team claims it cannot be seen by others) and less expensive.

Building a machine that sorts candy colors with iPhone

The very idea of a machine being able to color-sort M&Ms teases an inventor's imagination and interest in machines, electronics and programming. A person with a website called "reviewmylife" had heard about machines that can do this by sending the famous candy down a chute where a color sensor takes a second or two to identify the color and then a servo motor helps direct the candy to the correct pot. That approach seemed too slow for reviewmylife's liking, and this thinker wanted to try something else—an iPhone—more specifically, an iPhone talking to a Bluetooth module (he bought a Bluetooth LE module for the Arduino so that the phone could talk to the Arduino) while the candy is still in freefall, firing off the correct electro magnet controlled gate and sending the M&M into the correct pot.

Key N. Korean websites back online after shutdown

Key North Korean websites were back online Tuesday after a nearly 10-hour shutdown that followed a U.S. vow to respond to a crippling cyberattack on Sony Pictures that Washington blames on Pyongyang.

A look at North Korea's limited Internet capabilities

An hours-long Internet outage Tuesday in one of the world's least-wired countries was probably more inconvenient to foreigners than to North Korean residents, most of whom have never gone online. Even for wired Koreans south of the heavily armed border separating the rivals, the temporary outage made little difference—southerners are banned by law from accessing North Korean websites.

Review: Who needs a separate camera with these three phones?

Phones have gotten so good at taking photos that I rarely bring along a stand-alone camera anymore.

Sony threatens Twitter with legal action over hack

Sony Pictures has threatened Twitter with legal action unless it removes confidential material stolen from the movie company's computers that someone has posted on the social networking site.

Researchers develop new-generation 'thinking' biomimetic robots as ocean engineering solutions

NUS Engineering researchers are closer to creating underwater robotic creatures with a brain of their own – besides behaving like the real thing. In the near future, it would not be too tall an order for the team to produce a swarm of autonomous tiny robotic sea turtles and fishes for example, to perform hazardous missions such as detecting nuclear wastes underwater or other tasks too dangerous for humans.

New seismic survey technique could save dolphins' hearing

Conventional seismic imaging transmits sound energy into the ground and builds a picture of the underlying geology by analysing how the energy waves are reflected back to the receiver.

If South Korea's nuclear plant staff are vulnerable, then so are the reactors

Claude Shannon, who many consider the father of modern information theory, wrote a paper in 1949 in which he pointed out that security should never be based upon your enemy's ignorance of how your system is built. This is known today as the mantra: "There is no security through obscurity". Does it matter then that a South Korean nuclear plant was hacked and plans of the complex stolen? That rather depends on what happens next.

Twitter maps UK regions happiest about Christmas

Researchers at The University of Manchester have identified Doncaster as being the most positive city in the UK about Christmas, whilst Oxford is the most negative.

Laser technology aids CO2 storage capabilities

DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory is attracting private industry attention and winning innovation awards for harnessing the power of lasers to monitor the safe and permanent underground storage of CO2 resulting from fossil fuel combustion in power plants.

One million curies of radioactive material recovered

Los Alamos National Laboratory expertise helped the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN) Radiological Material Removal Program's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP) recover more than 1 million curies of radioactive sources since 1999. The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from material that could be used in "dirty bombs" by terrorists.

TripAdvisor fined $600,000 by Italian anti-trust

Italy's antitrust authority has fined travel planning website TripAdvisor 500,000 euros ($600,000) following complaints of improper business practices lodged by a national hoteliers' association and a consumer protection agency.

Samsung starts mass production of industry's first 8 gigabit LPDDR4 mobile DRAM

Samsung Electronics announced today that it has started mass producing the industry's first 8 gigabit (Gb), low power double data rate 4 (LPDDR4) mobile DRAM based on the company's leading-edge 20-nanometer (nm) process technology. LPDDR memories are the most widely used "working memory" for mobile devices worldwide.

Galaxy Note Edge: Cool screen, but it costs how much?

Hooray for something different. I love smartphones, and I don't hide the fact that I'm an iPhone user, but even I crave a little variety once in a while.

North Korea's Internet briefly down again: US experts

North Korea's connections to the Internet were briefly cut for the second day running Tuesday, according to a US Internet research group that has been tracking the country's struggle to stay online.

Barnes & Noble regains full ownership of Nook unit

Bookseller Barnes & Noble says it has bought back full ownership of its Nook e-reader business, which it plans to split into a separate company.

Software upgrades re-create old-school toys as smart playthings

Balls. Dolls. Race cars. So dull. How can good old-fashioned toys like these compete for children's attention when kids seem umbilically connected to their iPads? How about software-upgradable balls, dolls and race cars?

Group led by Apple and Microsoft sells patents for $900M

A group led by Apple and Microsoft has sold about 4,000 technology patents to patent management company RPX Corp. for $900 million.

Who pulled the plug on North Korea's Internet?

North Korea's Internet was on the fritz for a second day Tuesday. But the US is staying silent on whether it launched a cyber attack as payback for the hacking of Sony Pictures.

Speedy, agile UAVs envisioned for troops in urban missions

Military teams patrolling dangerous urban environments overseas and rescue teams responding to disasters such as earthquakes or floods currently rely on remotely piloted unmanned aerial vehicles to provide a bird's-eye view of the situation and spot threats that can't be seen from the ground. But to know what's going on inside an unstable building or a threatening indoor space often requires physical entry, which can put troops or civilian response teams in danger.

Sony re-gifts 'The Interview' in limited release

"The Interview" was put back into theaters Thursday when Sony Pictures Entertainment announced a limited theatrical release for the comedy that provoked an international incident with North Korea and outrage over its cancelled release.

Nevada, feds to study nuke-waste burial in state

Nevada and the federal government are agreeing to have a panel keep studying whether the U.S. will bury radioactive material from Tennessee at a former nuclear weapons proving ground north of Las Vegas.

Medicine & Health news
Smartphone thumb skills alter our brains

When people spend time interacting with their smartphones via touchscreen, it actually changes the way their thumbs and brains work together, according to a report in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on December 23. More touchscreen use in the recent past translates directly into greater brain activity when the thumbs and other fingertips are touched, the study shows.

Molecular mechanism behind health benefits of dietary restriction identified

A new study led by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers identifies a key molecular mechanism behind the health benefits of dietary restriction, or reduced food intake without malnutrition. Also known as calorie restriction, dietary restriction is best known for its ability to slow aging in laboratory animals. The findings here show that restricting two amino acids, methionine and cysteine, results in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection against ischemia reperfusion injury, damage to tissue that occurs following the interruption of blood flow as during organ transplantation and stroke. Increased H2S production upon dietary restriction was also associated with lifespan extension in worms, flies, and yeast.

Could playing Tchaikovsky's 'Nutcracker' and other music improve kids' brains?

Children who play the violin or study piano could be learning more than just Mozart. A University of Vermont College of Medicine child psychiatry team has found that musical training might also help kids focus their attention, control their emotions and diminish their anxiety. Their research is published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

Researchers map paths to cancer drug resistance

A team of researchers led by Duke Cancer Institute has identified key events that prompt certain cancer cells to develop resistance to otherwise lethal therapies.

Test predicts response to treatment for complication of leukemia stem cell treatment

A new test may reveal which patients will respond to treatment for graft versus host disease (GVHD), an often life-threatening complication of stem cell transplants (SCT) used to treat leukemia and other blood disorders, according to a study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published online today in the journal Lancet Haematology and in print in the January issue.

Using laparoscopy for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement

Researchers conducted a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial at Bern University Hospital in Switzerland to compare a laparoscopic procedure with a mini-laparotomy for insertion of a peritoneal catheter during ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery. The deciding factor was the rate of shunt malfunction. Although overall shunt failure rates did not differ substantially between patients in the two surgery groups, the authors identified a significant reduction in the rate of distal (abdominal) shunt failure in patients in whom laparoscopy was used. Detailed findings of the clinical trial are reported and discussed in "Laparoscopically assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: a prospective randomized controlled trial" by Philippe Schucht, MD, Vanessa Banz, MD, PhD, and colleagues, published today online, ahead of print, in the Journal of Neurosurgery.

Thiazide prophylaxis for kidney stones doesn't increase DM risk

(HealthDay)—The risk of diabetes mellitus is not increased with thiazide diuretic prophylaxis for kidney stones, according to research published in the December issue of The Journal of Urology.

Older women restrict driving more than older men

(HealthDay)—Older women restrict their driving activity more than older men, regardless of physical health or cognitive status, according to a study published in the November issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

CKD, glomerulonephritis risk higher for those with psoriasis

(HealthDay)—Psoriasis is associated with a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerulonephritis (GN), according to a study published online Dec. 15 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

Genes show the way to better treatment of hepatitis A

One of the most common causes of hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is a hepatitis C virus infection in the liver. The disease can be treated medically, but not all patients are cured by the treatment currently available. New research shows that the response to medical treatment depends on genetic factors.

Pet reptiles pose health risk for infants, study says

Owning exotic reptiles such as snakes, chameleons, iguanas and geckos could place infants at risk of salmonella infection, according to a British study published on Monday.

Kansas says new virus found after resident's death

A new virus thought to be carried by ticks or other insects has been discovered following the death of a southeast Kansas resident during the summer, public health officials said Monday.

Impact of torture, long-term psychological scars

At times, waterboarding rendered al-Qaida terror suspect Abu Zubaydah hysterical. But later, a message to CIA headquarters described an interrogator merely lifting his eyebrow and snapping his fingers, and Zubaydah "slowly walked on his own to the water table" to lie down.

Trial confirms Ebola vaccine candidate safe and equally immunogenic in Africa

Two experimental DNA vaccines to prevent Ebola virus and the closely related Marburg virus are safe, and generated a similar immune response in healthy Ugandan adults as reported in healthy US adults earlier this year. The findings, from the first trial of filovirus vaccines in Africa, are published in The Lancet.

Asians need type 2 diabetes screening at lower body weight: experts

(HealthDay)—Obesity is a big contributor to type 2 diabetes, but Asian-Americans may need to pile on fewer excess pounds to develop the disease than other groups do, according to new guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

Goal in stage Ia1 cervical cancer is complete excision

(HealthDay)—Clear excision margins are important in the management of stage Ia1 squamous cervical cancer, according to research published in the December issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Researchers developing a biomedical device that can find and destroy cancer cells

To examine internal organs, doctors often use a tube with light and a tiny camera attached to it. The device, called an endoscope, helps detect cancer and other illnesses.

Our naive optimism about medical care

"It might do me some good and it won't hurt to give it a go."

Tuberculosis avoids and subverts host immunity

An ancient disease, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide. The recent TB cases in Quebec among the Inuit community has underscored the need to find new avenues to eradicate this illness.

Full-time employment with no health benefits was a trend for workers in 2012

(Medical Xpress)—Almost half of the 6.9 million Californians who lacked insurance in 2012 were in a family with a full-time worker, according to a new report from the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.

Researchers develop a new distance rehabilitation system for patients with heart pathologies

A team of Spanish researchers has participated in the development of a new distance heart rehabilitation system based on physical exercise routines for people affected by heart pathologies.

Trial finds cancer drug can block key signal in cancer growth and drug resistance

An experimental cancer drug may block an important driver for the survival, growth and spread of cancer cells.

Why Santa should bring your kids the right-sized sports gear

Smaller footballs, lighter tennis racquets and mini playing fields: it makes sense to have these for children, right?

"Fitspiration" social media trend is actually detrimental to women's wellbeing

Fitspiration – or fitspo for short – is a rising global movement within social media that encourages weight loss, healthy eating and exercise through inspirational fitness images and slogans.

New mums experience a change in their taste of men

New mothers' taste in men changes after giving birth, according to research from the University of Stirling.

Holiday eating not detrimental to good regular dietary habits

Tis the season to attend food-filled festivities that generally tax the old waistline. If you're tired of stressing over calories and weight gain, here's a bit of advice from Peter Pribis, assistant professor of nutrition and dietetics in the University of New Mexico College of Education, Department of Individual, Family and Community Education.

Using targeted brain stimulation to change attention patterns for anxious individuals

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a painless treatment strategy that uses weak electrical currents to deliver targeted stimulation to the brain via electrodes placed on the scalp. tDCS has shown promise in treating mood, anxiety, cognition, and some symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

India's birth rate shrinks

India's birth rate declined dramatically in the last two decades due in part to rising female literacy, a new study shows, but experts warned against complacency in the country of 1.2 billion.

US going after sellers of pure caffeine powder

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is building a legal case against companies that sell pure powdered caffeine, which can be fatal even in small doses.

Number of Americans taking statins keeps rising: CDC

(HealthDay)—More Americans than ever are taking cholesterol-lowering medications, federal health officials reported Tuesday.

Greater risk of premature deaths in neighborhoods with high concentrations of check-cashing places

A new research paper suggests a relation between the density of both cheque-cashing places and alcohol outlets in a given neighbourhood and the risk of premature death in people ages 20-59 years.

Stress may increase desire for reward but not pleasure, research finds

Feeling stressed may prompt you to go to great lengths to satisfy an urge for a drink or sweets, but you're not likely to enjoy the indulgence any more than someone who is not stressed and has the same treat just for pleasure, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.

Overweight teens lose weight for the right reasons, study shows

Most heavy teens' attempts to lose weight don't work, but a new study shows a big secret of those who do succeed.

'July effect' does not impact stroke outcomes, according to new study

Patients with strokes caused by blood clots -known as acute ischemic strokes- who were admitted in July had similar outcomes compared to patients admitted any other month, according to a new study. The findings challenge concerns about the possibility of lower quality of care and the potential risk of poorer outcomes in teaching hospitals when new medical residents start each July - sometimes called the "July effect."

US moves to end ban on blood donations by gay men

Federal health officials are recommending an end to the nation's lifetime ban on blood donations from gay and bisexual men, a 31-year-old policy that many medical groups and gay activists say is no longer justified.

New standards of care from the American Diabetes Association

The American Diabetes Association is recommending a less stringent diastolic blood pressure target for people with diabetes and that all people with diabetes take either moderate or high doses of statins, in keeping with recent changes to guidelines for cardiovascular risk management enacted by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA). These recommendations are reflected in the most recent changes to the Association's annual revised Standards of Medical Care, being published in a special supplement to the January issue of Diabetes Care.

Researchers confirm whole-genome sequencing can successfully identify cancer-related mutations

UT Southwestern Medical Center cancer researchers have demonstrated that whole-genome sequencing can be used to identify patients' risk for hereditary cancer, which can potentially lead to improvements in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and care.

Researchers find alternate drug therapy lowers antibodies

Findings of a three-year clinical trial led by University of Cincinnati (UC) transplant researchers suggest that a novel pre-operative drug therapy reduces antibodies in kidney patients with greater success than with traditional methods, with the potential to increase the patients' candidacy for kidney transplantation and decrease the likelihood of organ rejection.

Research opens opportunities to develop targeted drug therapy for cardiac arrhythmia

In an orchestra, each instrument plays an important role in creating a beautiful piece of music. If just one instrument falls out of rhythm, a world-class symphony could sound more like a middle-school orchestra practice.

Small changes in eGFR with TDF preexposure prophylaxis

(HealthDay)—For HIV-1-uninfected members of serodiscordant couples, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) used as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is associated with a small decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), according to a study published online Dec. 22 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Panel recommends blood pressure screening to stop a 'silent killer'

Health authorities in the U.S. are taking fresh aim at a "silent killer" with a recommendation that all American adults be screened for high blood pressure.

Popular diabetes drug may be safe for patients with kidney disease

The most popular treatment for type 2 diabetes, metformin, may be safer for patients with mild to moderate kidney disease than guidelines suggest, according to a new, systematic review of the literature published by Yale investigators in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

The heat is on: Causes of hospitalization due to heat waves identified

In the largest and most comprehensive study of heat-related illness to date, Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers have identified a handful of potentially serious disorders—including fluid and electrolyte disorders, renal failure, urinary tract infections, sepsis, and heat stroke—that put older Americans at significantly increased risk of winding up in the hospital during periods of extreme heat.

Daily multivitamin improves pregnancy outcomes in South Asia, study suggests

A multivitamin given daily to pregnant women in rural Bangladesh reduced pre-term births, increased infant birth weight and resulted in healthier babies overall, according to the large randomized trial conducted by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers.

Comprehensive care for high-risk, chronically ill children reduces serious illnesses

High-risk children with chronic illness who received care at a clinic that provided both primary and specialty care and features to promote prompt effective care had an increase in access to care and parent satisfaction and a reduction in serious illnesses and costs, according to a study in the December 24/31 issue of JAMA.

Many patients with gout do not receive recommended treatment

Among patients in England with gout, only a minority of those with indications to receive urate-lowering therapy were treated according to guideline recommendations, according to a study in the December 24/31 issue of JAMA.

Trends in indoor tanning among high school students

While indoor tanning has decreased among high school students, about 20 percent of females engaged in indoor tanning at least once during 2013 and about 10 percent of girls frequently engaged in the practice by using an indoor tanning device 10 or more times during the year, according to a research letter published online by JAMA Dermatology.

Effect of longer, deeper cooling for newborns with neurological condition

Among full-term newborns with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (damage to cells in the central nervous system from inadequate oxygen), receiving deeper or longer duration cooling did not reduce risk of neonatal intensive care unit death, compared to usual care, according to a study in the December 24/31 issue of JAMA.

Identifying brain variations to predict patient response to surgery for OCD

Identifying brain variations may help physicians predict which patients will respond to a neurosurgical procedure to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that does not respond to medication or cognitive-behavioral therapies, according to a report published online by JAMA Psychiatry.

To remove the gallbladder or not—that is the question

Gallbladder removal is one of the most common operations performed in older adults. Yet, research from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston shows many patients who would benefit most from the surgery don't get it.

Consumer group sues Aetna, alleges discrimination

A consumer advocacy group has filed a class-action lawsuit against Aetna Inc. saying a new policy violates the privacy of people with HIV and AIDS by requiring them to get their medications from its mail-order pharmacy.

Ireland to rule on pregnant woman on life support

Irish judges considered arguments Tuesday over whether a brain-dead pregnant woman should be kept on life support to give her 17-week-old fetus a chance at life, a case that has reignited debate over Ireland's abortion ban.

Armed virus shows promise as treatment for pancreatic cancer

A PCRF-funded project which combines of two different approaches – virotherapy and immunotherapy - is showing "great promise" as a treatment for pancreatic cancer.

FDA clears Novo Nordisk's weight loss drug Saxenda

The Food and Drug Administration has approved a Novo Nordisk diabetes drug as a treatment for obesity. It's the first injectable drug approved for weight loss.

Chemistry news
Scientists develop first effective and affordable bedbug bait and trap

The world owes a debt of gratitude to Simon Fraser University biologist Regine Gries. Her arms have provided a blood meal for more than a thousand bedbugs each week for five years while she and her husband, biology professor Gerhard Gries, searched for a way to conquer the global bedbug epidemic.

Scientists sweep cells apart for use in medical research

Scientists have developed a new method to separate cells, which could lead to more efficient medical research.

Breakthrough in predictions of pressure-dependent combustion chemical reactions

Researchers at Sandia and Argonne national laboratories have demonstrated, for the first time, a method to successfully predict pressure-dependent chemical reaction rates. It's an important breakthrough in combustion and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities and other industries that employ combustion models.




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