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贵人知君心——美国有机化学家Gilbert Stork的人生奇遇

已有 9297 次阅读 2012-2-24 10:57 |个人分类:新观察|系统分类:博客资讯| 美国, 有机化学, Gilbert, Stork

贵人知君心
——美国有机化学家Gilbert Stork的人生奇遇


吉尔伯特·斯托克(Gilbert Stork)1921年13月31日出生于比利时首都布鲁塞尔(Brussels)郊区的伊克塞尔(Ixelles),他的父亲雅克·维尔·斯托克(Jacques Weil Stork)是比利时人,家里兄弟3人,吉尔伯特的父亲排行老二,兄弟3人共同经营祖上留下的一家珠宝店生意。而吉尔伯特的母亲西蒙尼(Simone)是一位法国乐伦(Lorraine)Nancy的人,吉尔伯特的外祖父从事保险业工作。?
吉尔伯特兄妹3人,他是老大,曾有一个比他小两岁的弟弟,3岁时因为患中耳炎无药治疗而不幸夭折;还有比他小5岁的妹妹,现今仍住在法国朗格多克-鲁西永大区奥德省的卡尔卡松(Carcassonne)镇。在吉尔伯特出生后不久,就随父母迁往法国巴黎,1935年随全家迁往法国南部港口城市尼斯(Nice),1939年秋随家人迁往美国纽约。1939年底在佛罗里达州圣彼得堡初级学院遇上后来成为他一生伴侣的温妮福莱·斯图(Winifred Stewart)。1953年定居新泽西州里奥尼亚镇(Leonia)。他具有比利时和美国双重国籍,现年91岁的吉尔伯特有4个子女。

1940年2月进入佛罗里达大学(University of Florida)学习化学,当时已经是第二学期了。但是,因其成绩优异,两年半后大学毕业,1942年在佛罗里达大学获得化学学士学位,1945年在美国威斯康星大学(University of Wisconsin)获得有机化学博士学位。获得博士学位之后的一年间(1945-1946年),在美国威斯康星州Milwaukee的Lakeside研究所(Lakeside Laboratories) 作为资深研究化学家进行科学研究工作。后来斯托克离开威斯康星,去了美国哈佛大学(Harvard University),1946-1948年任哈佛大学教员,1948-1953年任哈佛大学助理教授;1953年又离开哈佛大学到哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University),1953-1955年任哥伦比亚大学助理教授,1955年被聘为教授,1955-1967年一直在哥伦比亚大学任教,1967-1993年被聘为Eugene Higgins化学教授(Eugene Higgins Professor of Chemistry),1993年退休之后被聘为荣誉教授。斯托克曾经获得多项荣誉,最早是在1957年,36岁的斯托克就获得了美国化学会纯粹化学奖(1957 Award in Pure Chemistry, American Chemical Society),2年后的1959年又获得美国古根海姆基金会高级会员(Guggenheim Foundation Fellow),1960年当选美国国家科学院院士(U.S. National Academy of Sciences),1962年当选美国艺术和科学研究院院士(American Academy of Arts and Sciences),1989年当选为法国科学院外籍院士(Foreign Member of the French Académie des Sciences),1995年当选美国哲学学会会员(American Philosophical Society),1999年被选为英国皇家学会会员(The Royal Society, UK)。
自1961年获得美国劳伦斯大学(Lawrence University)授予的理学荣誉博士学位之后,美国、法国等多所大学授予吉尔伯特理学荣誉博士学位。

在Gilbert Stork的人生旅途中,曾经遇到过许多让他终生难忘的人和事。

1)敬慕与同情之心

Gilbert Stork初到美国,申请大学入学时间需要等待一段时间,但是为了不使光阴虚度,Gilbert Stork参加了St. Petersburgh Junior College的讲演旁听班进行英语口语表述学习,他出于对年轻法国数学家E.迦罗华(Evariste Galois)的敬慕,选择了伽罗华的爱情故事作为讲演主题,其他同学的讲演得到同学们的喝彩,但是唯独Gilbert Stork的讲演似乎无人能够领会,其他同学对此冷漠的态度,让Gilbert Stork感到心灰意冷

爱情纷争使迦罗华对女友和他自己完全厌恶了。几天过后情绪低沉的迦罗华接受了他的情敌的决斗挑战。他自己知道他不会有什么机会赢,于是整晚就在写数学手稿,那是他短暂不幸而又闪亮的一生唯一能够给他安慰,体现他的价值的东西了,也是他不愿随自己的生命带走的。他把这些新的结果,连同那次被法国科学院弄丢的论文的结果寄给了他的朋友Auguste Chevalier,然后在1832530依约前往决斗场。在那里他被射中腹部,一时断不了气。在送往医院的路上他对他兄弟说:别哭,我可是要鼓起全部勇气才能在20岁去死呢。痛苦结束于第二天,然后他被送进墓穴里。24年以后,刘维尔整理并发表了迦罗华的一些文章和传记。而真正理解他的成就,还要等到1870年约当写出Traite des substitutions,或者更晚一些,到20纪克莱因(Felix Klein)和李(Sophus Lie)把他的理论系统地运用到几何上去时人们才真正认识到他们曾经拥有过一个怎样的天才。迦罗华只活了20岁,写的全部论文只有60页纸。在他生前他的数学思想不为人所理解,政治主张也大逆不道。然而在他死后人们称他是现代代数学的开创者,而他的祖国,再也不会有谋害国王这条罪名了。

才华横溢,英年早逝的伽罗华难道不值得敬佩。童年母亲教育的相似性更让Gilbert Stork产生同情心。

2)敬爱与相映之心

Gilbert Stork的文明举止,感动了Winifred Stewart小姐的芳心,使她决定以身相许,托付终身。194469Gilbert StorkWinifred Stewart终于步入婚姻殿堂,在美国麦迪逊(Madison)举行了隆重的结婚仪式。Winifred Stewart结婚后更名为Winifred Stewart Stork. Winifred Stewart毕业于彼得斯堡中学(St. Petersburg High school),从华盛顿大学圣路易斯分校获得学士学位,她也是妇女联谊会的杰出会员,而且一直在麦迪逊从事教学工作。新郎官Gilbert Stork1942年毕业于美国佛罗里达大学, 明年(1945年)将会获得威斯康辛大学化学博士学位。关于他们结婚的消息在194473的《独立晚报》(The Evening Independent - Jul 3, 1944)和72的《彼得斯堡时报》(St. Petersburg Times - Jul 2, 1944)均有报道。

3)求知与追星之心

Gilbert Stork求学原则,吃饭穿衣量家当,根据家庭经济状况,择校以消费低廉为基本原则,以学习化学和选择化学领域名师为主要目标,合成奎宁是他的梦想。他在佛罗里达大学生活的很好,但是物理化学教授却推荐他应该去伊利诺斯大学攻读博士学位,因为那里有Roger Adams教授,他不仅是化学系主任,而且一直在从事哌啶天然产物研究,哌啶与奎宁有关。不幸的是因为没有提前以书面形式进行预约,等到找上门时,在Adams博士办公室门外被秘书拦住了,尚未预约,不便会见,吃了一个闭门羹。一气之下,回到汽车站乘车前往麦迪逊,因为Adams有一个学生(Samuel McElvain)在麦迪逊从事教育工作,他一直在从事吡啶类化合物的研究,Gilbert Stork认为吡啶类化合物也是他梦想合成奎宁的必需品Gilbert Stork见到Samuel McElvain将自己合成奎宁的设计方案交给他看,他原本认为有经验的有机合成化学家看到他的合成方案之后会哈哈大笑,但是Samuel McElvain没有,仅仅说了一句:“something can be done with this”,然后就将合成方案有还给了Gilbert Stork,并同意给其安排一个2个人共用的实验室进行研究。......

4)爱才与扶持之心

Gilbert Stork获得Samuel McElvain的许可,可以进行实验了。但是Gilbert Stork却干起并非得到导师同意的生物素合成,被导师发现之后,不但没有遭到训斥,而且将其调离到距离他的办公室更近的一个实验室,让他安心进行合成研究。这项工作成为Gilbert Stork攻读博士学位期间,也是Gilbert Stork的第一篇论文,以作者信件往来的形式在“编辑通信”(‘Communication to the Editor)发表,这篇论文导师并没有署名,Gilbert Stork是唯一的作者,而且发表之后被美国《化学文摘》收录。其他得到名人相助,如为Gilbert Stork提供实验条件,帮他解决实际问题。著名化学家、2次诺贝尔奖获得者L. PaulingLinus Pauling授邀请他去美国加州理工大学Linus Pauling当时就是加州理工大学化学系主任。还有解决就业、解决护照、邀请讲学、合作事宜等均显示出Gilbert Stork得到贵人相助的感人细节待后补充。

5)卓越与完美之心

Gilbert Stork2001年提出自己是首次实现奎宁全合成的新观点之后,在化学界引起一片哗然,很多人提出质疑,甚至有人重新重复再现了90年前的奎宁合成实验,以此作为证据来证明Woodward- Doering合成本身就已经实现了全合成,仅仅是没有将前人的实验利用自己合成的产物进行重复,最终得到奎宁而已。美国C&EN有多篇报道,有其他同行的评议等,见下页(53篇评议的每一篇标题均可链接到原文)。Gilbert Stork的奎宁合成结果和合成方法较前人更加完美和卓越,这一点是不可否认的。其他评议可以看见文末文献。

6)思念与伤感之心

Gilbert Stork爱妻的逝世以及2010年女儿的英年早逝,使这位年过九旬的化学家,在失去了一个人生路上的生活伴侣之后,又失去了自己心爱的女儿。无论是在他的化学回忆录还是在心灵深处,无不留下深深的怀念与思念之情。由其回忆录中描述其与Winifred Stewart女士初次邂逅之景,一见钟情的淡淡几笔,可以让人从字里行间体会到Gilbert Stork的思念之情。但是年仅55岁的女儿的早逝,是Gilbert Stork老人难免有些伤感。白发人送黑发人的悲痛,特别是父母对子女早逝的悲伤可想而知。尽管Gilbert Stork有许多志同道合的同事和学生在事业和生活上鼎力相助,但是失去亲人带来的是难以忘怀和久久挥之不去的心头阴霾,就是再伟大的人物与凡人也有同样地感受。

7).......(正在与人合作整理)

 

QUININE REVISITED

A. MAUREEN ROUHI, C&EN WASHINGTON

In footnote 14, Stork refers to the "quasiuniversal impression" that Harvard University chemists Robert B. Woodward and William von Eggers Doering achieved the synthesis of quinine with the construction in 1944 of an intermediate in a route to quinine. Natural quinine comes from the bark of cinchona trees.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(19), May 07, 2001

 

Quinine

RON DAGANI

Purpose Antimalarial Quinine The bark of the cinchona tree, containing the alkaloid quinine, was the first effective treatment for malaria, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. Pelletier and Caventou set up a factory in Paris for the extraction of quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(25), June 20, 2005

 

Quinine Revisited . Again

Bethany Halford

Again Historical research helps untangle the complex mythology of quinine synthesis IF MOLECULES were mythical figures, quinine would be chemistry's Helen of Troy—the structure that launched a thousand research projects. Fritz Goro Reaction Doering (left) and Woodward re-create the quinine synthesis for the camera.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(9), February 26, 2007

 

Quinine Quest

Bethany Halford

The Rabe-Kindler synthesis of quinine from quinotoxine. Smith found that fresh aluminum powder gave only traces of quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 86(5), February 04, 2008

 

LETTERS

Had Stork's synthesis been published just a few months earlier, it would have made a most suitable capstone for our quinine section. Thus, quinine was no longer required to make light polarizers.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(25), June 18, 2001

 

First Draft

Rudy M. Baum, Editor-in-chief

C&EN has visited the synthesis of quinine a number of times over the years. The thrust of these pieces was that the Woodward and Doering synthesis of quinine was a myth.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(9), February 26, 2007

 

LETTERS

The statement that "the synthesis was purely formal, which has always been understood" would minimally require that Paul Rabe had previously convincingly described the second half of the quinine construction. The question in 1944 was not whether the conversion of quinotoxine to quinine might be feasible at some later date, but, simply, whether it had previously been convincingly demonstrated.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(43), October 22, 2001

 

Let Them Rest In Peace

The pair believed that this molecule could be converted into quinine with [Paul Rabe and Karl Kindler’s] published procedure and, as a result, claimed that their achievement marked the first formal synthesis of [quinine]” ( C&EN, Jan. 24, page 46 ) [emphasis mine As far as the first total synthesis of quinine is concerned, let Woodward, Doering, Rabe, and Kindler rest in their deserved peace.

Chemical & Engineering News, 89(14), April 04, 2011 [Letters, Letters]

 

Helium and neon

Gilbert Stork

This had previously been converted to a substance called quinotoxine by Vladimir Prelog, while Paul Rabe claimed that he had succeeded in converting quinotoxine, which was available by degradation of quinine, back into quinine [Berichte, 51, 466 (1918) The first repeatable total synthesis of quinine was achieved by Milan Uskokovic and his colleagues at Hoffmann-La Roche in 1970 [J. Am. Chem.

Chemical & Engineering News, 78(39), September 25, 2000

 

Setting The Record Straight

Madeleine Jacobs Editor-in-chief

Woodward and William von Eggers Doering achieved the synthesis of quinine in 1944. In fact, what the Harvard scientists synthesized was an intermediate many steps away from quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(19), May 07, 2001

 

LETTERS

Although the details of Rabe's work are somewhat odd, I think that to reject it is quite unjustified, especially in view of later work showing that the synthesis of quinine from quinotoxin is possible, even if using a different method. Of course, the recent synthesis of quinine by Gilbert Stork and his associates is superior in every way to the early work of Woodward and Doering, but this is only to be expected.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(33), August 13, 2001

 

Chemical & Engineering News: Letters

April 30, 2007 Letters April 30, 2007 Volume 85, Number 18 pp. 4-5 Quinine mythology Jeffrey Seeman's article in Angewante Chemie that was profiled in C&EN is filled with history but does not resolve the quinine saga It is clear that chemists will forever debate "Three Steps to Quinine: Fact or Myth."

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(18), April 30, 2007

 

September 7, 2009 Letters

Quinine History Lisa M. Jarvis' article on quinine was very interesting A quinine tablet can remove leg cramps in a few minutes.

Chemical & Engineering News, 87(36), September 07, 2009

 

THE FORGOTTEN CHEMIST WHO CHANGED THE WORLD

REVIEWED BY MICHAEL FREEMANTLE

Perkin isolated the dye while attempting to synthesize the antimalarial drug quinine, which occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinine has the empirical formula C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(27), July 02, 2001

 

Letters

Previously, when treated largely with quinine (isolated from the bark of the Cinchona tree), the malaria parasite developed resistance to quinine and several drugs modeled on the quinine structure (chloroquine and mefloquine), as well as to antifolates, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, which are the first- or second-line treatment in many African countries.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(18), May 02, 2005

 

Chemical & Engineering News: Letters

Quinine Mythology Jeffrey Seeman's article in Angewante Chemie profiled in C&EN is filled with history but does not resolve the quinine saga If the latter is not the case, isn't it is odd that Paul Rabe would abandon a detailed quinine article to publish alternate cinchona alkaloid chemistry 14 years later and referencing only his 1918 work?

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(17), April 23, 2007

 

Drug Hybrids Enter the Fray

Celia Henry Arnaud

But if in addition "you have a slow-acting antimalarial agent like quinine, there's a chance that it will kill the remaining parasites that haven't been killed by the fast-acting antimalarial agent," Walsh says. The hybrid may increase cellular uptake, he says, noting that the lipophilic artemisinin can have problems getting into the cell's aqueous interior that the polar quinine can alleviate.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(46), November 12, 2007

 

A New Take on Organic Chemistry

Reviewed by Stu Borman

The quinine chapter also covers the 2001 completion of the total synthesis by Columbia University's Gilbert Stork, using modern synthetic methods. However, the book was published a little too early to include a 2008 addition to the quinine saga, in which chemists Robert M. Williams and Aaron C. Smith of Colorado State University, Fort Collins, completed the total synthesis using the original earlier steps upon which the 1944 formal synthesis had been based (C&EN, Feb. 4, page 8).

Chemical & Engineering News, 86(24), June 16, 2008

 

Research Resurrection

Lisa M. Jarvis

Quinine worked so well, there wasn't really any great need for new antimalarials," Raskin explains. Today, the tenacious Plasmodium falciparum parasite that causes malaria is resistant to quinine and its derivatives.

Chemical & Engineering News, 87(21), May 25, 2009

 

William von Eggers Doering

Amanda Yarnell

During World War II, as Allied troops suffered from a shortage of the malaria drug quinine, Doering and fellow Harvard chemist Robert B. Woodward synthesized quinotoxine. The pair believed that this molecule could be converted into quinine with a previously published procedure and, as a result, claimed that their achievement marked the first formal synthesis of the malaria drug.

Chemical & Engineering News, 89(4), January 24, 2011 [ACS News, Obituaries]

 

Putting Polaroid's Founder In Focus

Reviewed by David M. Kiefer

A sidelight during the war was Land's support of a young instructor of chemistry at Harvard, Robert Burns Woodward, in his efforts to synthesize quinine, the first of a series of important natural product syntheses that would eventually earn him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965. Woodward became a part-time consultant for Polaroid in 1942, and Land campaigned to get the armed forces to develop Woodward's synthesis as a way to make quinine for use as an antimalarial agent.

Chemical & Engineering News, 77(15), April 12, 1999

 

ALL IN GOOD TASTE

Sophie L. Wilkinson

First, an individual's minimum detection threshold for a substance such as sucrose, which is sweet, or quinine, which is bitter, can be measured. If quinine and sucrose are both added to water at half their detection levels, one might expect that the mixture would taste just like plain water.

Chemical & Engineering News, 78(18), May 01, 2000

 

CUSTOM CHEMICALS

Stephen C. Stinson,

Quinine and cinchonidine both have endo-2-carbinol groups, while quinidine and cinchonine have exo-2-carbinol groups. Quinine or cinchonidine yields endo-2-hydroxymethyl-syn-5-vinylquinuclidine, which Hoffmann has trade named Quincorine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(4), January 22, 2001

 

EMERGENCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY: 1870-1930

EMERGENCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY: 1870-1930 The modern pharmaceutical industry traces its origin to two sources: apothecaries that moved into wholesale production of drugs such as morphine, quinine, and strychnine in the middle of the 19th century and dye and chemical companies that established research labs and discovered medical applications for their products starting in ... Already in the early 19th-century, chemists were able to extract and concentrate traditional plant-based remedies, giving rise to treatments such as morphine and quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(25), June 20, 2005

 

Fighting Malaria

Ann M. Thayer

In a major clinical trial funded by the , another international group of researchers recently found that intravenous (IV) artesunate acted more rapidly than IV quinine to clear parasites and was safer and easier to administer in treating severe falciparum malaria in adults (Lancet 2005, 366, 717). Compared with the more regularly used quinine, artesunate was found to reduce by 35% the incidents of death among patients in Bangladesh, Myanmar, India, and Indonesia.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(43), October 24, 2005

 

Deciphering Herapath's Crystal

Jyllian Kemsley

Deciphering Herapath’s Crystal June 22, 2009 Volume 87, Number 25 pp. 43 - 43 Deciphering Herapath's Crystal An interest in history led one chemist to the light-polarizing material that enabled sunglasses, filters Topics Covered , , , Science At Last The crystal structure of the I 3 – and quinine components of herapathite, with iodine in purple, carbon in gray, oxygen in ... Although Herapath and his pupil initially had no idea how the “peculiarly brilliant emerald-green crystals” formed, further experimentation yielded the material when iodine was added to a solution of quinine disulfate in diluted sulfuric acid (Phil.

Chemical & Engineering News, 87(25), June 22, 2009

 

Your Molecular Essentials

Carmen Drahl

You also packed quinine, which could easily fit into the awe-inspiring structure category as well as the medicinal category, for its fever-reducing and antimalarial activity.

CENtral Science, newscripts, August 03, 2010

 

Is Vernalis' Hsp90 Destined to Be a Blockbuster?

Lisa Jarvis

On its own, the natural product is a poor drug candidate—a quinine moiety renders it highly reactive and highly insoluble.

CENtral Science, the-haystack, July 20, 2011

 

Mini DNA lab: Smaller than a bread box

This concentration effect enhances the peak height and thus the ease of detecting the analytes, resulting in a 100- to 5,000-fold improvement with hydrophobic compounds such as steroids or quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 76(42), October 19, 1998

 

BOOKS

Reviewed by Stephen W. Drew

Drews develops the history of these companies through the stories of well-known and long-lived plant-based pharmaceuticals, such as quinine and the Digitalis glycosides.

Chemical & Engineering News, 77(51), December 20, 1999

 

FROM MEMBRANES TO NANOTUBULES

A. MAUREEN ROUHI, C&EN Washington

For example, when a mixture of pyridine (molecular weight 79) and quinine (molecular weight 324) is introduced to one side of the U-tube, only pyridine is detected on the other side of the nanotubule membrane.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(24), June 11, 2001

 

FINE CHEMICALS

STEPHEN C. STINSON, C&EN NORTHEAST NEWS BUREAU

That ester undergoes asymmetric hydrogenation catalyzed by alumina that has been impregnated with both platinum and the quinine alkaloid hydrocinchonidine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(28), July 09, 2001

 

UNLOCKING THE SECRETS OF TASTE

A. MAUREEN ROUHI, C&EN WASHINGTON

The alkaloids caffeine and quinine are quintessential bitter compounds, but, likewise, many other compound types taste bitter.

Chemical & Engineering News, 79(37), September 10, 2001

 

SCIENCE CONCENTRATES

Using a quinine derivative as the catalyst, associate chemistry professor and coworkers at Johns Hopkins University previously have synthesized optically active -lactams through this route

Chemical & Engineering News, 80(8), February 25, 2002

 

CHIRALITY AT WORK

A. MAUREEN ROUHI, C&EN WASHINGTON

When she read these patents, she was studying, also as part of her Ph.D. thesis, the diastereomeric interactions of quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 81(18), May 05, 2003

 

CHIRAL BUSINESS

A. MAUREEN ROUHI, C&EN WASHINGTON

Isolated as products of biological synthesis, drugs such as quinine and morphine always have been available as single enantiomers.

Chemical & Engineering News, 81(18), May 05, 2003

 

CHEMISTRY AT ITS MOST BEAUTIFUL

MICHAEL FREEMANTLE

Perkin serendipitously prepared the dye while attempting to synthesize the antimalarial drug quinine from coal-tar extracts.

Chemical & Engineering News, 81(34), August 25, 2003

 

'EVOLUTIONARY' CHEMISTRY

DAVID S. ALCORN

July 12,  2004 Volume 82, Number 28 pp. 31-32     'EVOLUTIONARY' CHEMISTRY , by Johann Peter Murmann, Cambridge University Press, 2004, 294 pages, $60 (ISBN 0-521-81329-8)     REVIEWED BY DAVID S. ALCORN           In 1856, 18-year-old William Henry Perkin was trying to make quinine, the antimalarial drug critical to British colonial interests.

Chemical & Engineering News, 82(28), July 12, 2004

 

Innovation Day

Arnold Thackray

In the spring of 1856, 18-year-old William Henry Perkin was in his lab attempting to synthesize quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 82(37), September 13, 2004

 

CHEMISTRY'S QUIXOTIC BEGINNINGS

REVIEWED BY THEODOR BENFEY

He describes the pharmaceutical properties of plants and the isolation of the classic organic chemicals strychnine, morphine, and quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 82(51), December 20, 2004

 

Aspirin

AALOK MEHTA

After the colonization of the New World, Europe had taken to treating pain and fever with quinine imported from South America.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(25), June 20, 2005

 

TRIAL SEPARATIONS

Ann Thayer

The company just recently licensed another CSP technology based on quinine and quinidine derivatives from the lab of Wolfgang Lindner, professor of chemistry at the University of Vienna.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(36), September 05, 2005

 

Despite Its Expanded Mission, RIKEN Continues Its Rich History Of Chemical Research

Amanda Yarnell

Neuroscientists Takaoki Kasahara and of previously showed that pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) plays a critical biochemical role in lysine breakdown.

Chemical & Engineering News, 83(49), December 05, 2005

 

New Products

Melissa Kuhnell

Spectrum Chemicals & Laboratory Products, Instruments and labware PHOTOSTABILITY CABINET The MB87X uses quinine chemical actinometry to measure light exposure and never needs recalibration or requalification.

Chemical & Engineering News, 84(35), August 28, 2006

 

2005-06 Organic Graduate Fellows

Raheem is involved in an asymmetric total synthesis of quinine and quinidine and has developed asymmetric synthetic methods, including a highly enantioselective aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction.

Chemical & Engineering News, 84(48), November 27, 2006

 

Brushing Up On Plant Riches

Patricia L. Short

Brushing Up On Plant Riches Business February 26, 2007 Volume 85, Number 09 pp. 27-29 Brushing Up On Plant Riches Phytochemicals get boost from advanced chemical analysis, synthesis Aspirin, belladonna, digoxin, morphine, pyrethrum, quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(9), February 26, 2007

 

Science & Technology Concentrates

In 1856, British chemist William Henry Perkin accidentally invented mauveine while working on a synthesis of the antimalarial drug quinine.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(18), April 30, 2007

 

Mauveine Reveals A More Colorful Secret

Stephen K. Ritter

NEWBIE Mauveine C is one of two newly identified components of purple mauveine dye In 1856, William Henry Perkin accidentally invented mauveine while working on a synthesis of quinine, the antimalarial drug that was critical to British colonial interests at the time.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(18), April 30, 2007

 

Chemophilately

Sophie L. Rovner

While seeking a way to synthesize quinine in 1856, Perkin accidentally made mauveine, the first successful synthetic dye.

Chemical & Engineering News, 85(51), December 17, 2007

 

Panacea For NMR

Rachel Petkewich

Panacea For NMR. » » Panacea For NMR Latest News August 4, 2008 Volume 86, Number 31 p. 10 Spectroscopy Panacea For NMR Combining pulse sequences into a single experiment cuts instrument time ONE EXPERIMENT now can yield the same information that

Chemical & Engineering News, 86(31), August 04, 2008

 

Opening Doors In China

Amanda Yarnell

He is credited with, among other things, paving a route to quinine, pioneering carbene chemistry, and nailing down the mechanism of the Cope rearrangement.

Chemical & Engineering News, 86(43), October 27, 2008

 

Flexible Fluorination

Carmen Drahl

The procedure works on a range of triflate substrates, including highly functionalized triflates derived from the natural product quinine and the dye fluorescein.

Chemical & Engineering News, 87(33), August 17, 2009

 

2006 ACS National Awards Winners

For example, early in Liebeskind's career, he "devised an ingenious route to quinines employing the combination of maleoyl- and phthaloylmetal complexes with alkenes," which he later used for synthesizing the antitumor antibiotic (+/-) nanomycin A and a natural product called royleanone, explains Buchwald.

Chemical & Engineering News, 84(8), February 20, 2006



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