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50年麻醉学原创性研究论文作者性别差异分析(附原文)

已有 1477 次阅读 2019-9-16 17:05 |个人分类:新观察|系统分类:海外观察| 麻醉学, 美国, 性别差异

50年麻醉学原创性研究论文作者性别差异分析(附原文)

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据《科学计量学》(Scientometrics)网站报道,2019年10月即将出版的一期杂志刊登了一篇来自美国密尔沃基退伍军人事务医疗中心(The Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, USA)和美国密尔沃基威斯康辛医学院(The Medical College of Wisconsin,Milwaukee, USA)麻醉系的研究人员合作研究结果。该研究对美国两大麻醉学期刊在1967-2017年之间,发表的原创性研究论文作者性别差异的分析——Pagel, P.S., Freed, J.K. & Lien, C.A. A 50-year analysis of gender differences in United States authorship of original research articles in two major anesthesiology journals. Scientometrics2019, 121(1): 371-386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-019-03192-ypagel2019.pdf

与男性相比较,女性在许多领域有弱于男士之势,在学术医学领域也不例外。但是,最近美国的研究结果已被证明,女性比例在近半个世纪以来已经有了大幅度的提高。以作者“性别差异”为例,存在于大多数医学专业,但美国密尔沃基的研究论文作者对其性别差异问题,直到最近才在麻醉学中提了出来。研究者分析了作者发表在《麻醉学》(Anesthesiology)和《麻醉与镇痛》(Anesthesia and Analgesia)2种杂志,与麻醉学有关的原创性论文。结果发现:从1967年到2017年之间,在麻醉学研究方面发表的论文,其中有女性作者参与的研究论文,随着时间的推移有逐步增加之势,而且有越来越多的女性担任了研究成果的第一作者、最后一名作者以及通讯作者的角色。分别以1967年、1977年、1987年、1997年、2007年和2017年发表在《麻醉学》和《麻醉镇痛》2种杂志上的研究论文作为研究对象。以通讯作者来确定每一篇文章的原产国;分析中只包括了来自美国的研究论文。每个作者的性别都是通过检查名字来确定的,如果有必要时通过作者的机构网站或互联网搜索来进行验证。对于每一篇论文的第一作者、最后一名作者、通信作者以及合作作者分别进行统计。如果有的话,还需要确定联邦政府的赠款支持状况。有98.2%的作者确定了性别。共发表研究论文1350篇,涉及作者6165人(其中女性1319人,占21.4%)源自美国。女性作者在《麻醉学》杂志上发表的研究论文,时间依赖性从1967年的6.2%上升到2017年的31.3%。女性第一作者、最后一名作者和通讯作者的比例分别从1967年的5.1%、8.9%和2.5%上升到2017年的37.0%、22.2%和25.9%。随着时间的推移,每篇文章的女性合著者数量也在增加。在《麻醉与镇痛》方面也观察到类似的结果。在这两种期刊中,至少包含一名女性的文章比例随着时间的推移逐渐上升(例如,《麻醉学》,1967年为12.6%,2017年为90.7%)。发表在《麻醉学》上的文章比发表在《麻醉与镇痛》上的文章更有可能得到联邦政府的资助。从1967年到2017年,美国《麻醉学》和《麻醉与镇痛》研究论文中的女性第一作者的比例有所上升,接近目前担任学术职务的比例。在过去50年里,虽然女性最后一名作者和通讯作者的比例也增加了,但女性在这些角色中的代表性仍然相对不足。更多信息请注意浏览原文(pagel2019.pdf)。

Abstract

Underrepresentation of women in academic medicine is strongly linked to differences in men’s and women’s scholarship and has been shown to substantially reduce the overall quality of research. An authorship “gender gap” exists in most medical specialties, but differences in research article authorship have only been recently suggested in anesthesiology. We analyzed authorship of US research articles published in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia (journals that publish two-thirds of all anesthesiology-related articles) from 1967 to 2017 to test the hypothesis that publication of anesthesiology research articles by women authors has progressively increased over time along with greater involvement in first, last, and corresponding author roles. Research articles appearing in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia in 1967, 1977, 1987, 1997, 2007, and 2017 were identified. The corresponding author was used to determine the country of origin of each article; only articles originating from the US were included in the analysis. Each author’s gender was determined by inspection of the first name and verified using the author’s institutional website or an internet search if necessary. First, last, and corresponding authors as well as co-authors were noted for each article. Federal grant support was also identified if present. Gender was identified in 98.2% of authors. A total of 1350 research articles with 6165 authors (1319 female; 21.4%) originated from the US. The percentage of women authors increased in a time-dependent manner in Anesthesiology from 6.2% in 1967 to 31.3% in 2017. The proportion of women who were first, last, and corresponding authors increased from 5.1%, 8.9%, and 2.5%, respectively, in 1967 to 37.0%, 22.2%, and 25.9% in 2017, respectively. The number of women co-authors per article also increased over time. Similar results were observed in Anesthesia and Analgesia. The percentage of articles that included at least one woman rose progressively over time in both journals (e.g., Anesthesiology, 12.6% in 1967 versus 90.7% in 2017). Articles published in Anesthesiology were more likely to be supported by a federal grant than those in Anesthesia and Analgesia. The percentage of women first authors of US research articles in Anesthesiology and Anesthesia and Analgesia increased from 1967 to 2017 and approaches the proportion who currently hold academic appointments. Women’s last and corresponding authorship also increased during the past 50 years, but women continue to be relatively underrepresented in these roles.



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