气象.水.熵.复杂性分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/zhangxw 张学文的文章,涉及气象、水分、熵、统计、复杂性、一般科学等

博文

气象变量的单位数值--新疆气象手册(69)附录5

已有 497 次阅读 2020-5-5 09:35 |个人分类:新疆气象手册|系统分类:科研笔记

气象变量的单位数值--新疆气象手册(69)附录5

 2020 05 05

《新疆气象手册》一书(2006,气象出版社)的序,前言 提要 :http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-2024-1208089.html  

此手册的总目录:http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-2024-1208203.html

 

6 气象主要参数换算表

61 温度(温标上刻度数的对应关系)

   

摄氏度(°C

华氏度(°F

开尔文(K

摄氏度(°C

t(°C)

9/5[t(°C)]+32

t(°C)+Te

华氏度(°F

5/9[t(°F)−32]

t(°F)

5/9[t(°F)−32]+Te

开尔文(K

T(K)−Te

9/5[T(K)−Te]+32

T(K)

注:Te=273.16K

 

62 气压

   

1百帕(hPa

1毫米汞柱高mmHg

1英寸汞柱高

1百帕(hPa

1

0.75006

0.029530

1毫米汞柱高(mmHg

1.33322

1

0.039370

1英寸汞柱高

33.864

25.400

1

 

63 风速

 

1·-1m/s

1海里·-1kn

1公里·-1km/h

1英尺·-1ft/s

1英里·-1

1·-1m/s

1

1.944

3.600

3.281

2.237

1海里·-1kn

0.514

1

1.852

1.688

1.151

1公里·-1km/h

0.278

0.540

1

0.911

0.621

l英尺·-1ft/s

0.305

0.592

1.097

1

0.682

1英里·-1

0.447

0.869

1.609

1.467

1

 

 

7 国际制(SI)词冠

在计量单位符号(如米,m)前面加一个表示不同倍率(或比率)的符号,这个符号一般称为国际制SI词冠。如对米(m)来说,用km或者mm表示1米的1千倍(1公里,1km)或者千分之一(1毫米,1mm)。见下表。使用时注意符号的大小写,并且都用正体。

倍率名称表

中文名称

比率

比率(幂)

符号

前缀

1泽的1000

1024

Y

yotta

1艾的1000

1021

Z

zetta

1拍的1000

1018

E

exa

1太的1000

1015

P

peta

太(万亿)

1吉的1000

1012

T

tera

吉(10亿)

1兆的1000

109

G

giga

兆(百万)

1000000

106

M

mega

1000

103

k

kilo

100

102

h

hecto

10

101

da

deka

1

1



1/10

10-1

d

deci

1/100

10-2

c

centi

1/1000

10-3

m

mili

1毫的/1000

10-6

μ

micro

1微的/1000

10-9

n

nano

1纳的/1000

10-12

p

pico

1皮的/1000

10-15

f

femto

1飞的/1000

10-18

a

atto

1阿的/1000

10-21

z

zepto

1仄的/1000

10-24

y

yocto

 

国内在习惯上使用的“词冠”

亿

1万的万倍

108



10000

104



(张学文)

 

 

 

4 气象上常用数据

气象常用数据表

       光速(真空)                                                   2.99792458×108ms-1

         大气中的声速(0°C                                     331.36ms-1

              大气中的声速(常温)                                                    340m·s-1

              普朗克常数(h                                                                   6.626176×10-34Js

         波尔兹曼常数(K                                         1.380662×10-23JK-1

              斯忒潘波尔兹曼常数(σ                                        5.67032×10-8Wm-2K-4

              维恩位移定律常数                                                                0.2898×10-2mK

         阿伏伽德罗常数                                               6.022045×1023mol-1

              洛喜密脱常数(标准状态)                                        2.686781×1025分子m-3

              热功当量                                                                                        4.18683Jcal-1

         功热当量                                                           0.238844calJ-1

 

              水银密度(标准状态)                                   13.595080gcm-3

              电子电荷(e                                                 −1.60211917×10-19C

         干空气分子量                                                   28.966

         水(冰或水汽)分子量                                   18.016

         氮(N2)分子量                                               28.0134

         二氧化碳(CO2)分子量                                 44.010

         氧(O)原子量                                                15.999

         氮(N)原子量                                                14.0067

         氯化钠(NaCl)分子量                                   58.443

         碘化银(AgI)分子量                                     234.773

         氢(H2)分子量                                               2.0158

         理想气体在标准温度、气压                          

                 下的克分子体积                                       22.41383×10-3m3mol-1

         气体普适常数(R                                        8.31441JK-1mol-1

         干空气比气体常数(Rd                               287.04J·K-1kg-1

         水汽比气体常数(Rv                                   461.5J·K-1kg-1

 

         干绝热温度直减率(γd                                9.76°Ckm-1

              对流层平均气温直减率(γ                         6.5°Ckm-1

 

         干空气定压比热(Cpd                                  1.0061×103JK-1kg-1

         干空气定容比热(Cvd                                  0.7180×103JK-1kg-1

              干空气比热之比率(K= Cpd/Cvd                  1.401

         干空气分子平均直径                                       3.46×10-10m

         干空气分子平均自由程                                   6.98×10-8m

         干空气分子均方根速度                                   4.85×102ms-1

         干空气热传导率                                               2.34×10-2Jm-1s-1K-1

         干空气密度(标准状态)                               1.2928kgm-3

              干空气密度(0°C1000百帕)                    1.276kgm-3

         干空气折射率(对钠D线,λ=589μm       1.0002919

 

         大气折射常数(760mmHg0°C                60″.3

         泊松方程常数(Kd=Rd/Cpd                           0.286

         均质大气高度(标准状态)                           7.991km

         标准大气压                                                       760mmHg=1013.25hPa

 

         水的密度(0°C                                             0.99987×103kgm-3

         水的密度(4°C                                             1.00000×103kgm-3

              纯水平面上的饱和水汽压(0°C               6.1078hPa

         纯冰平面上的饱和水汽压(0°C               6.1064hPa

 

         绝对零度                                                           273.15°C

         水的冰点                                                           273.15=0°C

         水的三相点温度                                               273.16=0.01°C

         水的沸点(760毫米汞柱)                            100°C=373.15K

         水的比热(15°C                                           4.195×103Jkg-1°C-1

         水的绝对折射率                                               1.333

         水的介电常数(0°C                                     81.5

              水的表面张力(0°C                                     7.564×10-2Nm-1

              水的表面张力(20°C                                   7.275×10-2Nm-1

 

              水汽定压比热(20—40°C)(Cpv             1.863×103Jkg-1K-1

              水汽定容比热(20—40°C)(Cpv             1.403×103Jkg-1K-1

              水汽潜热随温度变化率                                   2.386×103Jkg-1K-1

              水的蒸发(水汽凝结)潜热(0°C           2.501×106Jkg-1

              水的冻结(冰的融解)潜热                           0.334×106Jkg-1

              冰的密度                                                           0.917×103kgm-3

              冰的比热                                                           2.114×103Jkg-1K-1

              冰的介电常数(-5°C                                    2.8

         冰的升华(汽化)潜热(0°C                     2.835×106Jkg-1

 

         全球平均地面大气电场强度                           ≈130Vm-1

              全球晴天地面大气总电流                               ≈1800A

         地球总电荷                                                       ≈5.7×105C

         大气总电阻                                                       ≈200Ω

         地面与电导层之间的电位差                           ≈360000V

         全球各地平均可同时观测到的雷雨               ≈2200

         全球平均每年发生的雷雨                               ≈16×106

         闪电中击穿电场强度                                       ≈103~104Vcm-1

              每次闪电放电量平均                                       ≈20~30C

         每次闪电电流                                                   ≈20000A

 

         5微米直径水滴下降末速                                ≈0.8×10-4ms-1

              10微米直径水滴下降末速                              ≈0.3×10-2ms-1

              50微米直径水滴下降末速                              ≈0.08ms-1

              0.1毫米(100微米)直径水滴下降末速      ≈0.3ms-1

              0.5毫米直径水滴下降末速                             ≈2.06ms-1

              1毫米直径水滴下降末速                                ≈4.03ms-1

              3毫米直径水滴下降末速                                ≈8.06ms-1

              5毫米直径水滴下降末速                                ≈9.09ms-1

 

         太阳平均半径                                                   6.9599×105km

         太阳表面积                                                       6.087×1012km2

         太阳体积                                                           1.412×1018km3

         太阳质量                                                           1.9891×1030kg

         太阳平均密度                                                   1.409×103kgm-3

              太阳表面有效温度                                           5770K

         太阳活动周期平均常长度                               11.04a

         太阳表面重力加速度                                       2.7398×102ms-2

              太阳发出的辐射                                               3.83×1026Js-1

              太阳表面上的逃逸速度                                   617.7ms-1

              在离开一个天文单位处太阳的

重力加速度                                                0.5931×10-2ms-2

 

         日地平均距离(一个天文单位)                   1.4960×108km

         近日点距离                                                       1.4710×108km

         远日点距离                                                       1.5210×108km

         在日地平均距离处太阳角半径                       959.63″=15.99′(角分)

                                                                                    =0.0046524rad

                                                                                    =16′

         黄赤交角(2000年)                                      23°26′21″.448

 

         1恒星日                                                            0.99726957平太阳日

                                                                                    =23h56min04.0905s(平太阳时)

         1平太阳日                                                        1.00273791恒星日

                                                                                    =24h03min56.5554s(恒星时)

         1朔望月                                                            29.530589平太阳日

                                                                                    =29d12h44min2.976s(平太阳时)

         1回归年                                                            365.24220平太阳日

                                                                                    =365d5h48min46s

         1恒星年                                                            365.25636平太阳日

 

         地球平均半径                                                   6371.004km

         地球赤道半径                                                   6378.140km

         地球极地半径                                                   6356.755km

         地球平均密度                                                   5.518×103kg·m-3

              地球质量                                                           5.974×1024kg

         地球体积                                                           1.083×1012km3

         地球表面积                                                       5.11×108km2

         地球陆地面积                                                  1.49×108km2(约为地球表面积的29%

         地球海洋面积                                                   3.62×108km2(约为地球表面积的71%

         地球南北纬30°之间表面积                            2.555×108km2(约1/2地球表面积)

         地球大气质量                                                   5.136×1018kg

         单位截面积大气柱质量                                   10350kgm-2

              地球自转角速度                                               7.2921152×10-5rad·s-1

              地球自转轴的倾斜                                           23°27′

         地球上的脱离速度                                           11.19kms-1

              地球赤道上一点的自转速度                           0.46510kms-1

              地球赤道上的离心加速度                               3.3915×10-2ms-2

              地球公转沿黄道的平均速度                           29.79kms-1

              地球纬度平均距离                                      111.137km

         地球赤道上经度距离                                  111.32km

         万有引力常数                                                   6.6720×10-11m3s-2kg-1

              地球标准重力加速度                                       980.665cms-2

              地球赤道重力加速度                                       978.032 cms-2

              地球极地重力加速度                                       983.218cms-2

              地球纬度45°处重力加速度                            980.616cms-2

              地球在50公里高度处重力加速度              965.4cms-2

              地球在100公里高度处重力加速度             950.5cms-2

              地球上一个位势米                                           9.8m2s-2=9.8Jkg-1

              在日地平均距离处垂直于                              

                 太阳辐射方向的太阳能                           1368Wm-2

 

         月球平均半径                                                   1738.2km

         月球体积                                                           2.200×1010km3

         月球质量                                                           7.351×1020kg(约为地球质量的1.23%

         月球平均密度                                                   3.341×103kgm-3

              月球表面重力加速度                                       162.2cms-2

              月地平均距离                                                   384401km=0.00257天文单位

                                                                                   =60.2682地球赤道半径

         在月地平均距离处月球角半径                       15′32.6″

         月球表面的脱离速度                                       2.4kms-1

              月球轨道和黄道的交角                                   5°8′43″,并以173天周期摆动±9′

         月球交点周期(章动周期逆行)                   18.61回归年

         月球平均上(下)中天周期                           24h50.47min

 

         圆周率(π                                                    3.14159265……

         1弧度(弪)                                                    57°17′44″.806=57.2957795°

         1                                                                    π/180°=0.017453(弧度)

 

(本表自《气象学词典》,上海辞书出版社,1985;录入时,将其原用单位按现行国际规定的标准单位作了换算;并参考:《实用气象手册》<上海版>;《气象手册》<贵州版>

 

 

 

 




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-2024-1231658.html

上一篇:计量单位--新疆气象手册(68)附录4
下一篇:云:基本是空中水汽的单独运动与状态变化的产物?

2 周少祥 檀成龙

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (1 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-9-23 11:46

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部