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Chinese Mapped America Before 1430 (Harvard University)

已有 1345 次阅读 2019-2-10 22:14 |个人分类:科学正史|系统分类:论文交流


Chinese Mapped America Before 1430 

(Harvard University Archive)

Siu-Leung Lee 李兆良

2019.2.10


My research paper presented at the International Cartographic Conference (Washington DC, July 4, 2017), is now available from Harvard University archive, 


SAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service

Title:
Chinese Mapped America Before 1430
Authors:
Lee, Siu-Leung
Affiliation:
AA(Zheng He Society of the Americas, Washington DC, USA sllee19@gmail.com)
Publication:
Proceedings of the ICA, Volume 1, 2018, pp.67
Publication Date:
05/2018
Origin:
COPERNICUS
DOI:
10.5194/ica-proc-1-67-2018
Bibliographic Code:
2018PrICA...1...67L

注:

Physics Abstract Service 物理文摘库

SAO Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 史密森天体物理观测台

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration 美國國家航空暨太空總署

ADS Astrophysics Data Service 天体物理数据库

ICA International Cartographic Conference 国际地图学会议

Abstract

Qualitative and quantitative comparison of Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (the 1602 Chinese world map) and contemporaneous world maps by Mercator (1569), Ortelius (1570) , Mercator's Arctic map (1595), and Plancius (1594) in particular, reveals that the Chinese map is not an adapted copy from European maps. The Chinese world map includes geography of a pre-Renaissance Europe and American geography unknown to Europeans until more than 200 years after Ricci's death. Approximately 50% of the place names, including those of America, have no equivalents on European maps. Chinese names descriptive of the geographic feature of California peninsula, Mount Ranier, the fjords of Alaska, Mount Denali, tidal bore near Anchorage are all accurate by latitudes. Chile and Peru are correct by relative longitude. Contrarily, the maps by Plancius and Mercator are erroneous and ambiguous on the geography of North and South America. The geography and text of the Chinese world map are consistent with a completion date of 1430, some sixty years before Christopher Columbus' first voyage. Martino Martini's Novus Atlas Sinensis (1655) is not a survey of his own but translated from Chinese sources, revealing that Ming China was capable of determining longitude/latitude on land and ocean, as well as spherical projection. In conclusion, information about American geography was transferred from China to Europe, not the reverse. The Chinese world map Kunyu Wanguo Quantu is the result of Chinese circumnavigation and survey, pioneering the Age of Exploration, overturning 600 years of misinterpreted history.



《明代中国公元1430年前测绘美洲》,我的论文阐述地图证据,证明比哥伦布早起码60年。 英文论文发表于美京华盛顿举行的国际地图学双年会(2017年7月4日),同时在哈佛大学存档, 存档领域是物理,美國國家航空暨太空總署NASA。这是中国人开创全球地理大发现,世界文明大融合的确实证据,推翻600年错误的世界史,还中国人的自尊、自信、自豪。


哥伦布“发现新大陆”是误导世人的说法。对欧洲人而言,“美洲”是欧洲人命名的,哥伦布是第一个欧洲人到达这大陆,也是人类里面最后一个人种到达这块大陆。亚洲人,非洲人早就定居这大陆。

亚洲人一万多年前就来到,带来二十八星宿,北斗,北极星等中华民族的特有的天文观测和习俗。他们按照中华传说中女娲补天,砍断海中巨鳌的脚来做撑起四方的天柱的故事,称这块大陆为“龟山”。(见列子·汤问》:“然则天地亦物也,物有不足,故昔者女娲氏鍊五色石,以补其阙,断鼇之足,以立四极。”)

明代中国在郑和时代(1405-1433)航行到达西半球,他们带来了其他亚洲、非洲种族,不止一次,测绘了南北美洲,整合了当时明代所知道的世界地理,公元1430年以前制成《坤舆万国全图》的原本。两百年后(1602年),意大利传教士利玛窦在原图上增添欧洲人命名的地名,李之藻重绘,被误作西方地图,原图已不复存在。地图上超过500宗证据证明《坤舆万国全图》不可能是欧洲人测绘。明清之际,郑和大航海的资料失佚,被掩埋,篡改。中国的郑和大航海资料残缺,重要资料存欧洲各国,特别是地图与文物。

明代人定居西半球大陆。开发农业,带回美洲特有动植物。

全世界所有14亿华人必须认真学习这段被蒙蔽了600年的历史,还原世界史。

详细请看本博客《科学正史》等栏目文章与书:

李兆良:《坤輿万国全图解密-明代测绘世界》联经出版社,2012.4.

李兆良:《宣德金牌启示录-明代开拓美洲》联经出版社,2013.11.

李兆良:《坤輿万国全图解密-明代中国与世界》上海交通大学出版社,2017.3.


李兆良

2019.2.10



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