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苏黎世大学物理系的六位诺奖得主

已有 3951 次阅读 2019-5-18 22:07 |系统分类:人物纪事

不经意间路过苏黎世大学物理系,突然想起爱因斯坦19091911年间在此任教,一时感兴趣,就坐到电脑前浏览了一下该系的主页:

https://www.physik.uzh.ch/en/department/Nobel_Prizes.html

 

该系一共六位诺贝尔物理学奖得主:Peter DebyeAlbert EinsteinMax von LaueKarl Alex MüllerWilhelm Conrad RöntgenErwin Schrödinger。除了第五位Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen笔者不知道外,其他几人都在物理教科书中看到过。

尽管都是诺贝尔奖得主,但是各自的主页却大不相同。从对其一生研究贡献的介绍,就可见一斑。

先来看这四位:Peter DebyeMax von LaueKarl Alex MüllerWilhelm Conrad Röntgen

 

1. Peter Debye

贡献介绍:The work “Zur Theorie der spezifischen Wärmen” published in 1912 provided for the first time the correct behaviour at low temperatures (Debye’s T3 law). In 1915 he developed the method for measuring X-ray interferences on polycrystalline substances with Paul Scherrer.

 

2. Max von Laue

贡献介绍:In 1912 von Laue discovered ogether with Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping the diffraction of X-rays on crystals. This proved that X-rays propagate like a wave. In addition, the diffraction patterns could be used for the first time to draw conclusions about the crystal structure. The method became very important for structural investigations in physics, chemistry and molecular biology. In addition, von Laue made research contributions to the theory of relativity, optics, thermodynamics and superconductivity.

 

    3. Karl Alex Müller

贡献介绍:Karl Alex Müller published a number of groundbreaking papers in the field of magnetic resonance and phase transformations in ferroelectrics (especially strontium titanate). In 1986 he achieved a scientific breakthrough together with Hans Georg Bednorz. They discovered a new class of superconductors, the so-called high-temperature or cuprate superconductors, with transition temperatures far above those of conventional superconductors. For this groundbreaking discovery, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987.

 

4. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

贡献介绍:On November 8, 1895, while working with cathode ray tubes, Conrad Röntgen discovered unknown radiation, which he called X-rays in his publication “über eine neue Art von Strahlen” (On a new type of radiation) published shortly afterwards. He worked at the time as a professor of theoretical physics in Würzburg.  He found out that the rays penetrate materials differently depending on their density and produced the first X-ray images by directing the rays onto a photo plate.

He also worked on the quadratic electro-optic (QEO) effect, which is a change in the refractive index of a material in response to an applied electric field (Kerr effect), was able to prove that a magnetic effect occurs in a dielectric moved between electrically charged capacitor plates (X-ray current) and could verify the displacement current predicted by Maxwell’s theory.

 

有木有感觉这四个人的贡献介绍一个写得比一个长,而其中写得最长的那一位Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen正好是笔者不知道的。这四人中Peter Debye(德拜)笔者最熟悉,然后是Max von Laue(冯·劳厄),至于Karl Alex Müller尽管笔者知道他发现了高温超导材料,但却写不出中文名了。有意思的是,Peter Debye的介绍写得最短,Max von Laue次之。

 

以上四位对于其贡献都是大段的进行描述,看起来较为费劲。现在看一下剩下的两位:Erwin SchrödingerAlbert Einstein

 

5. Erwin Schrödinger(薛定谔)

贡献介绍:

1925 Schrödinger Equations

1943 Schrödinger lectures at the Trinity College in Dublin

 

是的,你没有看错,就一个贡献——薛定谔方程,非常的简洁明了,也让人印象深刻。但遗憾的是,只列出了一项贡献。不知道是不是因为贡献实在太少,有点不好意思,所以只好加上去一个1943年的讲座来充数

 

——其实上面说薛定谔遗憾,仅指的相比于下面这位。对于其他人而言,薛定谔的遗憾肯定不是遗憾。

 

6. Albert Einstein(爱因斯坦)

贡献介绍:

1905: The quantization of light and the photoelectric effect

1905: A new determination of molecular dimensions (doctoral thesis)

1905: The Special Theory of Relativity

1905: Equivalence of mass and energy

1911: Light diffraction at large masses

1911: Wave/particle dualism

1915: The general theory of relativity

1917: Cosmological reflections on the general theory of relativity

1919: Cause and Effect

1924: Bose-Einstein condensation

 

你没有看错,每一项贡献都简洁明了,而且数量还不少。

 

这六人的简历似乎有点暗示:人生的简历应该是从繁到简,再从简到“繁”。有点意思!


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                                        苏黎世大学校园一角(对面修建的地方就是物理系)




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