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已有 3951 次阅读 2019-5-18 22:07 |系统分类:人物纪事




该系一共六位诺贝尔物理学奖得主:Peter DebyeAlbert EinsteinMax von LaueKarl Alex MüllerWilhelm Conrad RöntgenErwin Schrödinger。除了第五位Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen笔者不知道外,其他几人都在物理教科书中看到过。


先来看这四位:Peter DebyeMax von LaueKarl Alex MüllerWilhelm Conrad Röntgen


1. Peter Debye

贡献介绍:The work “Zur Theorie der spezifischen Wärmen” published in 1912 provided for the first time the correct behaviour at low temperatures (Debye’s T3 law). In 1915 he developed the method for measuring X-ray interferences on polycrystalline substances with Paul Scherrer.


2. Max von Laue

贡献介绍:In 1912 von Laue discovered ogether with Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping the diffraction of X-rays on crystals. This proved that X-rays propagate like a wave. In addition, the diffraction patterns could be used for the first time to draw conclusions about the crystal structure. The method became very important for structural investigations in physics, chemistry and molecular biology. In addition, von Laue made research contributions to the theory of relativity, optics, thermodynamics and superconductivity.


    3. Karl Alex Müller

贡献介绍:Karl Alex Müller published a number of groundbreaking papers in the field of magnetic resonance and phase transformations in ferroelectrics (especially strontium titanate). In 1986 he achieved a scientific breakthrough together with Hans Georg Bednorz. They discovered a new class of superconductors, the so-called high-temperature or cuprate superconductors, with transition temperatures far above those of conventional superconductors. For this groundbreaking discovery, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987.


4. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

贡献介绍:On November 8, 1895, while working with cathode ray tubes, Conrad Röntgen discovered unknown radiation, which he called X-rays in his publication “über eine neue Art von Strahlen” (On a new type of radiation) published shortly afterwards. He worked at the time as a professor of theoretical physics in Würzburg.  He found out that the rays penetrate materials differently depending on their density and produced the first X-ray images by directing the rays onto a photo plate.

He also worked on the quadratic electro-optic (QEO) effect, which is a change in the refractive index of a material in response to an applied electric field (Kerr effect), was able to prove that a magnetic effect occurs in a dielectric moved between electrically charged capacitor plates (X-ray current) and could verify the displacement current predicted by Maxwell’s theory.


有木有感觉这四个人的贡献介绍一个写得比一个长,而其中写得最长的那一位Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen正好是笔者不知道的。这四人中Peter Debye(德拜)笔者最熟悉,然后是Max von Laue(冯·劳厄),至于Karl Alex Müller尽管笔者知道他发现了高温超导材料,但却写不出中文名了。有意思的是,Peter Debye的介绍写得最短,Max von Laue次之。


以上四位对于其贡献都是大段的进行描述,看起来较为费劲。现在看一下剩下的两位:Erwin SchrödingerAlbert Einstein


5. Erwin Schrödinger(薛定谔)


1925 Schrödinger Equations

1943 Schrödinger lectures at the Trinity College in Dublin






6. Albert Einstein(爱因斯坦)


1905: The quantization of light and the photoelectric effect

1905: A new determination of molecular dimensions (doctoral thesis)

1905: The Special Theory of Relativity

1905: Equivalence of mass and energy

1911: Light diffraction at large masses

1911: Wave/particle dualism

1915: The general theory of relativity

1917: Cosmological reflections on the general theory of relativity

1919: Cause and Effect

1924: Bose-Einstein condensation











7 史晓雷 王庆浩 余国志 杨正瓴 杨金波 高峡 liyou1983

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