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NIH资助项目72年获得诺贝尔奖155个,窍门何在?

已有 686 次阅读 2019-6-1 12:07 |系统分类:观点评述

NIH资助项目72年获得诺贝尔奖155,窍门何在?

    NIH(National Institutes of Health)是美国国立卫生研究院。1946年,NIH实行基金形式资助,到2018年72年,NIH资助项目有155项获得诺贝尔奖,具体情况如下。美国NIH资助的课题平均每年有2项获得诺贝尔奖,美国人的课题为什么如此高超?窍门何在?

LaureatesFieldYearSupporting NIH Institute(s)
Frances H. Arnold, Ph.D., U.S.A., George P. Smith, Ph.D., U.S.A. (Shared with Gregory P. Winter, Ph.D., U.K.)Chemistry2018NCI, NIAID, NIGMS, NIMH
James P. Allison, Ph.D., U.S.A. (Shared with Tasuku Honjo, M.D., Ph.D., Japan)Physiology or Medicine2018NCI, NIAID
Joachim Frank, Ph.D., U.S.A. (Shared with Jacques Dubochet, Ph.D., Switzerland, and Richard Henderson, Ph.D., U.K.)Chemistry2017NIGMS
Jeffrey C. Hall, Ph.D., U.S.A, Michael Rosbash, Ph.D., U.S.A., and Michael W. Young, Ph.D., U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine2017NIGMS, NINDS, NIA, NIDA, NHLBI
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, U.S.A. (Shared with Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Ph.D., France and Bernard L. Feringa, Ph.D., Netherlands)Chemistry2016NCI
Angus Deaton, U.S.A.Economic Sciences2015NIA
Paul Modrich, U.S.A., and Aziz Sancar, U.S.A. (shared with Tomas Lindahl, U.K.)Chemistry2015NHGRI
William E. Moerner, U.S.A. (shared with E. Betzig, U.S.A. and S.W. Hell, Germany)Chemistry2014NIGMS, NHGRI, NCRR
Martin Karplus, U.S.A. & France, Michael Levitt, U.S.A., and Arieh Warshel, U.S.A.Chemistry2013NEI, NIGMS, NCI
James E. Rothman, U.S.A., Randy W. Schekman, U.S.A., and Thomas C. Südhof, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine2013NIGMS, NIAMS, NIDDK, NCI, NHGRI, NIMH, NINDS, NHLBI
Robert J. Lefkowitz, U.S.A., and Brian K. Kobilka, U.S.A.Chemistry2012NHLBI, NINDS, NIGMS, NIDA
Bruce A. Beutler, U.S.A., Jules A. Hoffmann, U.S.A., and Ralph M. Steinman, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine2011NIAID, NIDDK, NIGMS, NCI
Ei-ichi Negishi, U.S.A. (shared with R. F. Heck, U.S.A. and A. Suzuki, Japan)Chemistry2010NIGMS
Thomas A. Steitz, U.S.A., Ada E. Yonath, Israel, and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, U.K.Chemistry2009NIGMS, NIAID, NCRR
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, U.S.A., Carol W. Greider, U.S.A., and Jack W. Szostak, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine2009NIGMS, NCI, NIDCR, NIA
Martin Chalfie, U.S.A., Roger Y. Tsien, U.S.A., and Osamu Shimomura, U.S.A.Chemistry2008NIGMS, NINDS, NIAID, NIA, NEI
Mario R. Capecchi, U.S.A., and Oliver Smithies, U.S.A.(shared with M. J. Evans, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine2007NIGMS, NHLBI, NIDDK, NCI, NICHD
Roger D. Kornberg, U.S.A.Chemistry2006NIGMS, NIAID, NCI
Andrew Z. Fire, U.S.A., and Craig C. Mello, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine2006NIGMS, NICHD
Robert H. Grubbs, U.S.A., and Richard R. Schrock, U.S.A.(shared with Y. Chauvin, France)Chemistry2005NIGMS
Richard Axel, U.S.A., and Linda B. Buck, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine2004NIDCD, NCI, NIAID, NIMH, NINDS, NIDDK
Irwin A. Rose, U.S.A., and Avram Hershko, Israel (shared with A. Ciechanover, Israel)Chemistry2004NIAMS, NCI, NIAAA, NIGMS, NIDDK
Roderick MacKinnon, U.S.A., and Peter Agre, U.S.A.Chemistry2003NHLBI, NEI, NIAAA, NIGMS, NCRR, NINDS, NIDDK
Paul C. Lauterbur, U.S.A(shared with P. Mansfield, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine2003NCRR, NCI, NHLBI, NIGMS, NIMH
John B. Fenn, U.S.A. (shared with K. Tanaka, Japan and K. Wüthrich, Switzerland)Chemistry2002NIGMS
H. Robert Horvitz, U.S.A. (shared with S. Brenner, U.S.A. and J.E. Sulston, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine2002NIGMS, NCI, NICHD
Leland H. Hartwell, U.S.A. (shared with P.M. Nurse and R.T. Hunt, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine2001NIGMS, NCI, NCRR
K. Barry Sharpless, U.S.A. (shared with W.S. Knowles, U.S.A. and R. Noyori, Japan)Chemistry2001NIGMS, NHLBI
Paul Greengard, U.S.A., and Eric R. Kandel, U.S.A. (shared with A. Carlsson, Sweden)Physiology or Medicine2000NIMH, NIA, NIDA, NIGMS, NINDS, NIAAA, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCRR
James J. Heckman, U.S.A. and Daniel L. McFaddenEconomic Sciences2000NIA, NICHD, NIMH
Günter Blobel, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1999NIGMS, NCI
Robert Furchgott, U.S.A., Louis Ignarro, U.S.A., and Ferid Murad, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1998NIAMS, NICHD, NIDDK, NIGMS, NHLBI, NINDS
Paul D. Boyer, U.S.A. and Jens C. Skou, DenmarkChemistry1997NIGMS, NIDDK, NINDS
Stanley B. Prusiner, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1997NINDS, NIA, NCRR, NIGMS
Peter C. Doherty, U.S.A., and Rolf M. Zinkernagel, SwitzerlandPhysiology or Medicine1996NIAID
Edward B. Lewis, U.S.A., and Eric F. Wieschaus, U.S.A.(shared with C. Nusslein-Volhard, Germany)Physiology or Medicine1995NICHD, NIGMS
Alfred G. Gilman, U.S.A., and Martin Rodbell, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1994NIEHS, NIDDK, NIGMS, NINDS
George A. Olah, U.S.A.Chemistry1994NCI, NIGMS
Phillip A. Sharp, U.S.A., and Richard Roberts, U.K.Physiology or Medicine1993NIGMS, NCI, NIAID, NCRR, NLM, NCHGR
Robert W. Fogel, Ph.D.Economic Sciences1993NIA
Kary B. Mullis, U.S.A., and Michael Smith, CanadaChemistry1993NHBLI, NIAID, NIGMS
Edwin G. Krebs, U.S.A., and Edmond H. Fischer, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1992NIDDK, NIGMS, NIAMS
Gary Becker, U.S.A.Economics1992NICHD
Elias J. Corey, U.S.A.Chemistry1990NIGMS, NCRR, NCI, NHLBI, NIAID
E. Donnall Thomas, U.S.A., and Joseph E. Murray, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1990NIAID, NCI, NHLBI, NIAID, NIDDK
Sidney Altman, U.S.A., and Thomas Cech, U.S.A.Chemistry1989NCI, NIGMS, NICHD
J. Michael Bishop, U.S.A, and Harold E. Varmus, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1989NCI, NIAID
Susumu Tonegawa, JapanPhysiology or Medicine1987NIAID
Donald J. Cram, U.S.A. (shared with C.J. Pedersen, U.S.A., and J.-M Lehn, France)Chemistry1987NIGMS
Stanley Cohen, U.S.A., and Rita Levi-Montalcini, U.S.A./ItalyPhysiology or Medicine1986NICHD, NIGMS, NIMH, NINDS
Herbert A. Hauptman, U.S.A. (shared with J. Karle, U.S.A.)Chemistry1985NIGMS, NIADDK, NHLBI, DRR
Michael S. Brown, U.S.A., and Joseph L. Goldstein, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1985NHLBI, NIGMS, DRR
R. Bruce Merrifield, U.S.A.Chemistry1984NIDDK
Henry Taube, U.S.A.Chemistry1983NIGMS
Sune Bergstrom, Sweden, and John R. Vane, U.K. (shared with B. Samuelsson, Sweden)Physiology or Medicine1982NHLBI, NLM, NICHD, DRG, NIGMS, NIMH
Aaron Klug, U.K.Chemistry1982NIAID
Roald Hoffmann, U.S.A. (shared with K. Fukui, Japan)Chemistry1981NIGMS
David H. Hubel, U.S.A., and Torsten N. Wiesel, U.S.A./Sweden (shared with R. W. Sperry, U.S.A.)Physiology or Medicine1981NEI, NIGMS, NINDS, DRR
Paul Berg, U.S.A., and Walter Gilbert, U.S.A. (shared with F. Sanger, U.K.)Chemistry1980NIGMS, NCI, NIDDK
Baruj Benacerraf, U.S.A., George D. Snell, U.S.A., and Jean Dausset, FrancePhysiology or Medicine1980NIAID, NCI
Herbert C. Brown, U.S.A. (shared with G. Wittig, W. Germany)Chemistry1979NIGMS
Hamilton O. Smith, U.S.A., and Daniel Nathans, U.S.A.(shared with W. Arber, Switzerland)Physiology or Medicine1978NIGMS, NIAID, NCI
Roger C. L. Guillemin, U.S.A., and Andrew V. Schally, U.S.A.(shared with R. S. Yalow, U.S.A.)Physiology or Medicine1977NIDDK, NICHD, DRR, NIGMS
D. Carleton Gajdusek, U.S.A., and Baruch S. Blumberg, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1976NINDS, NHLBI, NCI
William N. Lipscomb, U.S.AChemistry1976NIGMS, DRG
David Baltimore, U.S.A., Renato Dulbecco, U.S.A., and Howard M. Temin, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1975NIAID, NCI
Albert Claude, Belgium, George E. Palade, U.S.A., and Christian de Duve, BelgiumPhysiology or Medicine1974NCI, NHLBI, NICHD, NIGMS, NHLBI, NIA
Gerald M. Edelman, U.S.A. and Rodney R. Porter, U.K.Physiology or Medicine1972NIAID, NIDDK, NIAID, NICHD
Christian B. Anfinsen, U.S.A., Stanford Moore, U.S.A., and William H. Stein, U.S.A.Chemistry1972NHLBI, NIDDK, NIGMS, NINDS
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., U.S.APhysiology or Medicine1971NIGMS, NHLBI, NIDDK
Julius Axelrod, U.S.A., and Ulf von Euler, Sweden (shared with B. Katz, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine1970NHLBI, NIMH, NINDS
Luis Leloir, ArgentinaChemistry1970NIGMS, NIAID
Max Delbruck, U.S.A., Alfred D. Hershey, U.S.A., and Salvador Luria, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1969NIAID, NIGMS, NCI, NICHD
Robert W. Holley, U.S.A., H. Gobind Khorana, U.S.A., and Marshall W. Nirenberg, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1968NIGMS, NCI, NIAID, NHLBI
Lars Onsager, U.S.A.Chemistry1968NIGMS
Haldan K. Hartline, U.S.A., and George Wald, U.S.A. (shared with R. Granit, Sweden)Physiology or Medicine1967NINDS, NEI
Charles B. Huggins, U.S.A. (shared with P. Rous, U.S.A.)Physiology or Medicine1966NCI, NIDDK, NIGMS
Jacques L. Monod, France (shared with F. Jacob and A. Lwoff, France)Physiology or Medicine1965NIAID
Robert B. Woodward, U.S.A.Chemistry1965NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG, NIDDK
Konrad Bloch, U.S.A. (shared with F. Lynen, Germany)Physiology or Medicine1964NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG
James D. Watson, U.S.A(shared with F. H. C. Crick and M. H. F. Wilkins, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine1962NIGMS, NIDDK, NCI, DRR, NIAID
John C. Kendrew, U.K. (shared with M. F. Perutz, U.K.)Chemistry1962NIDDK
Melvin Calvin, U.S.A.Chemistry1961DRG, NCI
Peter B. Medawar, U.K. (shared with F. M. Burnet, Australia)Physiology or Medicine1960NIAID
Arthur Kornberg, U.S.A., and Severo Ochoa, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1959NIGMS, NIAID, NCI, NIDDK, NIA, DRG
George W. Beadle, U.S.A., Joshua Lederberg, U.S.A., and Edward L. Tatum, U.S.A.Physiology or Medicine1958NIGMS, NHLBI, NIAID, NINDS, NICHD, DRR, NCI
Dickinson W. Richards, Jr., U.S.A. (shared with A. Cournand, U.S.A., and W. Forssmann, Germany)Physiology or Medicine1956NIDDK, NCI, NHLBI, NIGMS
Vincent du Vigneaud, U.S.A.Chemistry1955NHLBI, NCI, NIGMS, DRG
Thomas H. Weller, U.S.A. (shared with J. F. Enders and F. C. Robbins, U.S.A.)Physiology or Medicine1954NIAID, NIGMS
Linus C. Pauling, U.S.A.Chemistry1954NIGMS, NHLBI, DRG, NIAID, NCI
Fritz A. Lipmann, U.S.A. (shared with H. A. Krebs, U.K.)Physiology or Medicine1953NIGMS, NCI
Philip S. Hench, U.S.A(shared with E. C. Kendall, U.S.A., and T. Reichstein, Switzerland)Physiology or Medicine1950NIGMS




资料来源:https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/nobel-laureates




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