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[转载]韩国1901年以来的科技发明:他山之石可以攻玉

已有 155 次阅读 2018-6-14 11:26 |系统分类:观点评述|文章来源:转载

 

韩国1901年以来的科技发明:他山之石可以攻玉

来源:维基百科  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Korean_inventions_and_discoveries

List of Korean inventions and discoveries

Modern[edit]

Samsung SGR-A1

  • In 2010, DoDaam Systems introduced the Super aEgis II, one of a new breed of automated weapon that can identify, track, and destroy a moving target at a distance of 4 km.[138]

  • Daewoo's K11 is the first gun of its kind to be operational in the field, making the Republic of Korea Army the first in the world to use an airburst assault rifle as standard issue.[139][140]

  • Chisanbop is an abacus-like calculation system using fingers that was invented in Korea in the 1940s and brought to the West in the 1970s.[145

Physical science[edit]

  • In 1939, vinylon, the second man-made fiber to be invented, after nylon, was developed by Ichiro Sakurada, Ri Sung-gi, and Hiroshi Kawakami at Kyoto University in Japan. However, the fiber was largely ignored until Ri Sung-gi defected to North Korea in 1950 and led its production. Vinylon is the national fiber of North Korea, and is used for the majority of textiles, outstripping fibers such as cotton or nylon.[159][160]

  • In 1967, Dawon Kahng and Simon Min Sze invented the floating gate transistor, which provides the foundation for many forms of semiconductor memory devices.[162][163]

  • Zang-Hee Cho and James Roberston were the first to propose a ring system that has become the prototype of the current shape of PET.[164] Zang-Hee Cho also developed the first PET-MRI fusion molecular imaging device for neuro-molecular imaging.[165]

  • The invisible axion was first originally proposed by the theoretical physicist Kim Jihn Eui.[166]

  • Researchers at KAIST developed the HT-1, a next-generation holographic microscope for 3D live cell imaging without the need for staining or labeling. The HT-1 is the first system to achieve high-resolution tomographic microscopy with full optical/electronic control, and do so without having a mechanical rotation system.[168][169][170]

  • In 1965, Moo-Young Han and Yoichiro Nambu first introduced a new hidden symmetry among quarks, which is the origin of what is now called the color SU(3) symmetry.

  • In 2005, Philip Kim and Andre Geim's groups independently demonstrated peculiar and outstanding properties of graphene, leading to an explosion of interest in graphene.[173] In his Nobel lecture in 2010, Andre Geim said, "I owe Philip a great deal for this, and many people heard me saying – before and after the Nobel Prize – that I would be honoured to share it with him."[174] In 2009, Hong Byung-hee pioneered the synthesis of large-scale graphene by chemical vapor deposition, which triggered chemical researches toward the practical applications of graphene.[175][176]

  • Young-Tae Chang pioneered the diversity oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA) using a fluorescent library, allowing clear imaging of pancreatic cells.[179][180]

  • Giga steel is a type of steel developed by POSCO that can withstand over 100 kilograms per square millimeter, and is said to be "as light as aluminum but almost three times stronger," according to the company CEO.[184][185]

Life science[edit]

  • Chil-Yong Kang and his team at Western University developed the first genetically modified, whole-killed HIV vaccine to be approved for testing in humans, called the SAV001-H.[191]

  • Cheon Jinwoo of Yonsei University demonstrated, for the first time, the nanoscale size-dependent MRI contrast effect, opening a new gateway to “nanomedicine”, and also introduced the world’s most advanced nano-MRI technology, MEIO (magnetism-engineered iron oxide).[192]

  • Park Seung-jung pioneered a new method using a stent as an alternative treatment for left main coronary artery stenosis, an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart.[193][194]

  • Koon Ho Rha and Seung Choul Yang at Yonsei University invented video-assisted minilaparotomy surgery (VAMS), a hybridized form of laparoscopic and open surgeries.[195][196]

  • Sang-Ho Lee of Wooridul Spine Hospital pioneered percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy, which is the first laser-assisted endoscopic technique for herniated disc surgery.[197][198]

Technology[edit]

Electronics[edit]

MPMan

  • The first mobile phone to support MP3 playback, the SPH-M2100, was released by Samsung in 1999.[207][208]

  • The world's first TV phone, the SCH-M220, was developed by Samsung in 1999.[209][210]

  • The world's first commercially-available tablet computer, the GRiDPad was manufactured by Samsung in 1989 for GRiD Systems Corporation, it was modified from the Samsung PenMaster, a prototype that was not commercially distributed.[211][212][213]

  • The world's first watch phone, the SPH-WP10, was released by Samsung in 1999.[214][215]

  • Samsung developed the first eye tracking mouse that doesn't require users to wear special equipment, called the EyeCan, in 2012.[219][220]

  • Apple's "Retina" display was invented by LG and bought by Apple.[227]

  • The world's first UFS memory cards were developed by Samsung.[229][230]

  • The world's first solid rollable keyboard was introduced by LG in 2015.[231][232]

  • High Bandwidth Memory is a high-performance RAM interface for 3D-stacked DRAM developed by SK Hynix and AMD to be used in conjunction with high-performance graphics accelerators and network devices.

  • Researchers led by Byung Jin Cho at KAIST developed a glass fabric-based thermoelectric (TE) generator that is extremely light and flexible and produces electricity from the heat of the human body.[235][236][237]

  • Transparent resistive random access memory (TRRAM) is the world's first transparent computer chip, invented by scientists at KAIST.[238][239]

  • Researchers at KAIST developed an electric transportation system in which online electric vehicles (OLEV) get power wirelessly through the application of shaped magnetic field in resonance, a new technology introduced by KAIST that enables electric vehicles to transfer electricity wirelessly from the road surface.[240][241] The world's first OLEV buses began operation at the city of Gumi in March 2014.[242]

  • The world's first Braille smartwatch, called the Dot, was developed by a Korean startup company. The Dot features a tactile button display and uses Bluetooth to connect to electronic devices.[245]

Appliances[edit]

  • In 2011, LG introduced a closet, called the Styler, that steam cleans clothing that's hung inside without the use of water or detergents; it is used in hotels, airports, casinos, and homes in Korea.[247]

  • In 2015, LG Electronics unveiled the world's first washing machine that allows for two separate loads to be washed simultaneously using the "TWIN Wash System".[250][251]

  • The kimchi refrigerator is designed to meet the storage requirements of kimchi. The first commercial kimchi refrigerator was created by Winia Mando in 1995.[252]

  • Invented by Romi Haan in 2001, the steam mop is a type of electric mop that uses hot steam to disinfect floors.[253][254]

Information technology[edit]

  • Beginning in 1995, Seoul was the first city in the world to use contactless smart cards, for electronic ticketing.[255][256]

  • Developed in 2005 by Samsung Electronics, WiBro, an abbreviation of wireless broadband, is the first commercial mobile WiMax system in the world. In April 2007, KT began full commercial WiBro services in the Seoul metropolitan area and its vicinity for the first time in the world.[257]

  • The digital multimedia broadcasting technology was developed in South Korea. It is a digital transmission system for sending multimedia to mobile devices.[258][259]

  • By developing digital multimedia broadcasting, Korea became the first nation in the world to introduce mobile television.[259]

  • In 2011, Homeplus launched the world's first virtual store at Seolleung Station, enabling consumers to purchase items with their smartphones by scanning QR codes using the Homeplus app, then having the products delivered.[260]

  • The caller ringback tone (CRBT) service, which allows subscribers to choose a piece of music or an audio clip that callers will hear in place of the standard 'ringing' tone when dialing the subscriber's number, was first offered in South Korea in 2002 by SK Telecom. It was developed in 2001 by the Korean firm Witcom.[261][262]

Robotics[edit]


Albert HUBO

  • Developed by KAIST and introduced in 2004, HUBO is the world's second walking humanoid robot,[263] and the first to move with a natural gait.[264]

  • Introduced in 2005, Albert HUBO is the world’s first walking humanoid robot with an android head. It was a collaboration between Hanson Robotics and KAIST.[266][267]

  • Crabster CR200

  • In 2011, the world's first robot prison guard was introduced. Developed by Lee Baik-chul, a professor at Kyonggi University, the robot prison guard uses 3D cameras to detect abnormal human behavior patterns.[271][272][273]

  • Scientists at the Chonnam National University in South Korea developed the world's first cancer-fighting nanobot, a microscopic robot called a "bacteriobot", that is injected into the bloodstream and seeks out and destroys cancer cells while leaving healthy cells alone.[279][280]

  • Robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS), also called robotic thyroidectomy (RT), is a minimally invasive surgical technique developed in Korea that can remove all or part of the thyroid without scarring the neck.[281]

Entertainment technology[edit]

  • Developed by South Korean conglomerate CJ Group in 2009, 4DX is the world's first 4D cinema technology, allowing a motion picture presentation to be augmented with environmental effects.[282][283]

  • Developed by South Korean conglomerate CJ Group in 2012, ScreenX is the world’s first multi-projection system. It extends the images onto the theater walls to provide a 270-degree viewing environment.[283][284]

  • The world's first commercial cinema LED screen was developed by Samsung Electronics and installed in the Super S auditorium at the Lotte World Tower in Seoul. The screen is 10.3 meters wide and runs at 4K resolution, with brightness "ten times greater than that offered by standard projector technologies," according to Samsung.[285][286] In 2018, Samsung debuted the world’s first 3D cinema LED screen.[287]

Internet[edit]

  • In 1988, an archaic type of cybercafé called the "Electronic Café" was opened in front of Hongik University in SeoulSouth Korea by Ahn Sangsu and Keum Nuri. It had two 16-bit computers connected to an online service provider through a telephone line. The first modern Internet café in Korea was opened in 1994.[288] Korean Internet cafés, called PC bangs, are also LAN gaming centers,[289] and boomed during the late 1990s thanks to the growth of the Internet and gaming cultures.[290]

  • The first eSports league in the field of online gaming started in Korea in 1997. In December 1997, PC bang chains opened the first national online gaming league, known as the "Korea Pro Gamers League". The term "eSports" was coined by Park Ji-won of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism in February 2000 when he inaugurated the Korea e-Sports Association.[297] OGN was the first online game specialty channel in the world, and opened the world's first eSports dedicated stadium.[298]

  • South Korea's Cyworld is the world's first mass social networking service.[299][300] It was also the first in the world to have individual home pages and automated systems for contacting friends and relatives, leading to the creation of other popular sites such as Facebook and Myspace.[301]

  • The free-to-play business model in online games was created by Nexon in Korea.[302][303] The first game to use it was Nexon's QuizQuiz, released in October 1999, and made by Lee Seungchan, who would go on to create MapleStory.[304]

  • In 2003, Daum launched the "Webtoon" digital platform, creating a new form of manhwa (comics) that utilizes major characteristics of digital technologies.[305][306] According to the Korea Creative Content Agency, "Webtoons are not simply scanned versions of print comics. It’s a whole new, different genre tailored for the Internet age."[307]

  • Mukbang, also called "eating broadcast" or "social eating", is a type of online broadcast in which the host eats while interacting with online viewers.[308] The mukbang Internet culture began on AfreecaTV in 2009.[309]

  • Launched in 2000, OhmyNews is the world's first online newspaper to publish reports by readers, or "citizen journalists", allowing civil participation in opposition of the conservative press. OhmyNews influenced the outcome of the 2002 South Korean Presidential Election, and is considered one of the country's most influential media outlets.[310][311][312]

  • Developed by Naver for its LINE instant messaging app in Japan, stickers are large detailed emoticons featuring popular characters and themes.[313] The original default characters and stickers, known as the LINE Friends, were created by Kang Byeongmok, also known as "Mogi", in 2011.[314][315]

  • Coinone, a Korean digital currency exchange company, opened a brick-and-mortar branch called Coinone Blocks that it claims is the world's first brick-and-mortar cryptocurrency trading floor.[316

Martial arts[edit]

Main article: Korean martial arts

  • The earliest evidence of ssireum, or "Korean wrestling", dates back to the Goguryeo period. Originally used in military applications, ssireum became a popular pastime of the people, including many Korean kings, during the Goryeo and Joseon periods. In the 20th century, ssireum became a nationally televised sport in South Korea.[328]

Sports[edit]

Products[edit]

  • The Korean exfoliating mitt[333] is a mass-produced bath product used to scrub and peel the outermost layer of skin; it was invented in Busan by Kim Pil-gon in 1962. Since then, the Italy towel has become a household item in Korean homes and a staple item in Korean saunas. The Korean exfoliating mitt was named the Italy towel because the viscose fabric used to make it was imported from Italy at the time.[334][335]

  • The dol bed, or stone bed, is a manufactured bed that has the same heating effect as ondol and is purported to have health benefits.[336] The dol bed industry is estimated to be worth 100 billion Korean won, comprising 30 to 40 percent of the entire bed industry in South Korea; dol beds are most popular with middle-aged people in their 40s and 50s.[337][338]

  • Special cosmetic contact lenses popular in Asia that make the eye's iris appear larger in different shades. This product was invented in South Korea.[339][better source needed]

  • Sheet masks are face-shaped sheet fabrics soaked in nutrition-packed solution called serum, used as skincare and beauty product originated in Korea.[citation needed]

Miscellaneous[edit]

    • Thundersticks, known as makdae pungseon in Korea, are inflatable plastic promotional noisemakers that are most often used at sporting events, political rallies, and concerts. Makdae pungseon were created by BalloonStix Korea and first used in 1994 at an LG Twins baseball game.[342][343][344]

    • The apartment-type factory (아파트형 공장) is legally defined as having 3 or more floors and accommodating 6 or more factories in the same building.[349] Apartment type factory was formed in order to solve industrial structure changes and offshoring of plants due to the rise of land value. The first apartment type factory, Incheon Juan Apartment type factory were generated in 1989.[350][351] In 2010, the term "apartment-style factory" was changed to "knowledge industrial center"(지식산업센터).[352] Unlike traditional smokestack factories, the semi-industrial district knowledge industrial center makes efficient use of land and blends ICT, knowledge, and manufacturing industries into one building, creating a co-support system for medium sized businesses.[353] Modern knowledge industrial centers have door-to-door interior hallways for vehicles and drive-in systems in multiple floors for truck loading, as well as special attention to quality employee experience through beautification and communal recreation.[354][355] This type of factory has also been spread outside of Korea, such as Vietnam.[356]




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