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[转载]我国1912年以来的科技发明

已有 123 次阅读 2018-6-14 09:09 |系统分类:观点评述|文章来源:转载

 Modern (1912-present)

1. inventions

来源:维基百科https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_inventions

  • Artemisinin(青蒿素)Tu YouyouProject 523Dihydroartemisinin.

  • Car fueled by charcoal(木炭染料车): In 1931, Tang Zhongming created an internal combustion engine powered by charcoal and mounted it in an automobile.[citation needed]

  • Carbon aerogel(碳凝胶): In 2013, scientists at Zhejiang University broke the world record for the world's lightest substance, a carbon aerogel weighing in at 0.16 mg/cc.[793]

  • Cure of a solid cancer(实体瘤治疗): In 1956, Min Chiu Li, who was educated and worked in the USA after leaving China because of the communist takeover, and Roy Hertz, demonstrated that systemic chemotherapy could result in the cure of a widely metastatic malignant disease by his use of methotrexate to cure women of choriocarcinoma.[794][795]

  • Electronic cigarette(电子香烟): Hon Lik, a Chinese pharmacist, is credited with the invention of the modern electronic cigarette. In 2003, he came up with the idea of using a piezoelectric ultrasound-emitting element to vaporise a pressurized jet of liquid containing nicotine diluted in a propylene glycol solution. This design produces a smoke-like vapour that can be inhaled and provides a vehicle for nicotine delivery into the bloodstream via the lungs. He also proposed using propylene glycol to dilute nicotine and placing it in a disposable plastic cartridge which serves as a liquid reservoir and mouthpiece.[796]

  • Facekini(脸基尼): The facekini mask is a mask designed for swimmers and beachgoers which covers the head and reveals only the eyes, nose, and mouth.[797][798][799] It was invented by Zhang Shifan, a former accountant from the coastal Chinese city of Qingdao.[800]

  • Hydrogen bicycle(氢自行车): In 2007, Pearl (SPHPST.Co), unveiled at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology the first hydrogen powered bicycle, PHB. It uses a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to generate power.

  • Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for Down's Syndrome(唐氏综合症无创性产前诊断检测): Previously, women underwent invasive testing such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS). This new maternal blood test has the potential to reduce the number of women referred for invasive testing for Down's syndrome by 98 percent. Developed by Chinese researchers in Hong Kong in 2008, this is hailed as a breakthrough.[801]

  • Passenger drone(无人机): The world's first passenger drone, a drone capable of carrying human cargo, Ehang 184 was unveiled at the Computer Electronics Show (CES) 2016 by Chinese entrepreneurs.[802][803]

  • Radar-absorbing active stealth material(雷达吸波隐身材料[804]

  • Synthetic bovine insulin(人工合成胰岛素): In 1965, Chinese scientists synthesized bovine insulin, with the "same crystalline form and biological activities as natural insulin."[805][806] The project began in 1958, and is considered one of the "first proteins ever synthesized in vitro."[807]

  • Single-mode optical fiber(单模光纤): Professor Huang Hongjia of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed coupling wave theory in the field of microwave theory. He led a research team that successfully developed Single-mode optical fiber in 1980.[808][809][810][811]

  • Stem cell educator therapy(干细胞体外培育治疗): Chinese and US researchers have produced remarkable results for this new treatment of obtaining stem cells from human cord blood to "re-educate" misbehaving immune cells. This result was published in the open-access journal BMC Medicine in January 2012, and offers hope for Type 1 diabetics and potentially may also be used to treat other auto-immune diseases if the approach lives up to early promise.[812][813]

  • Turning Urine Samples into Brain Cells(从尿液细胞中培养出神经细胞): This new technique of reprogramming ordinary cells present in urine into immature brain cells that can form multiple types of functioning neurons and glial cells was developed by Chinese researchers in China, and was published in the scientific journal Nature Methods in December 2012. Instead of using retrovirus, they used vectors which the researchers say is a breakthrough[814] This does not involve embryonic stem cells which come with serious drawbacks when transplanted, such as the risk of developing tumours. This technique makes the procedure of generating Induced pluripotent stem cells far easier and non-invasive, as the cells can be obtained from a urine sample instead of a blood sample or biopsy. This research proves human excreta could be a powerful source of cells to study disease, bypassing some of the problems of using stem cells, and could be useful for research studying the cellular mechanisms of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's and for testing the effects of new drugs that are being developed to treat them.

2. discoveries

来源:维基百科 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_discoveries



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