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**Modern (1912-present)**

**1. inventions**

来源：维基百科https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_inventions

**Artemisinin（青蒿素）**, Tu Youyou, Project 523, Dihydroartemisinin.**Car fueled by charcoal（木炭染料车）**: In 1931, Tang Zhongming created an internal combustion engine powered by charcoal and mounted it in an automobile.^{[citation needed]}**Carbon aerogel（碳凝胶）**: In 2013, scientists at Zhejiang University broke the world record for the world's lightest substance, a carbon aerogel weighing in at 0.16 mg/cc.^{[793]}**Cure of a solid cancer（实体瘤治疗）**: In 1956, Min Chiu Li, who was educated and worked in the USA after leaving China because of the communist takeover, and Roy Hertz, demonstrated that systemic chemotherapy could result in the cure of a widely metastatic malignant disease by his use of methotrexate to cure women of choriocarcinoma.^{[794]}^{[795]}**Electronic cigarette（电子香烟）**: Hon Lik, a Chinese pharmacist, is credited with the invention of the modern electronic cigarette. In 2003, he came up with the idea of using a piezoelectric ultrasound-emitting element to vaporise a pressurized jet of liquid containing nicotine diluted in a propylene glycol solution. This design produces a smoke-like vapour that can be inhaled and provides a vehicle for nicotine delivery into the bloodstream via the lungs. He also proposed using propylene glycol to dilute nicotine and placing it in a disposable plastic cartridge which serves as a liquid reservoir and mouthpiece.^{[796]}**Facekini（脸基尼）**: The facekini mask is a mask designed for swimmers and beachgoers which covers the head and reveals only the eyes, nose, and mouth.^{[797]}^{[798]}^{[799]}It was invented by Zhang Shifan, a former accountant from the coastal Chinese city of Qingdao.^{[800]}**Hydrogen bicycle（氢自行车）**: In 2007, Pearl (SPHPST.Co), unveiled at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology the first hydrogen powered bicycle, PHB. It uses a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to generate power.**Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing for Down's Syndrome（唐氏综合症无创性产前诊断检测）**: Previously, women underwent invasive testing such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS). This new maternal blood test has the potential to reduce the number of women referred for invasive testing for Down's syndrome by 98 percent. Developed by Chinese researchers in Hong Kong in 2008, this is hailed as a breakthrough.^{[801]}**Passenger drone（无人机）**: The world's first passenger drone, a drone capable of carrying human cargo, Ehang 184 was unveiled at the Computer Electronics Show (CES) 2016 by Chinese entrepreneurs.^{[802]}^{[803]}**Radar-absorbing active stealth material（****雷达吸波隐身材料****）**^{[804]}**Synthetic bovine insulin（人工合成胰岛素）**: In 1965, Chinese scientists synthesized bovine insulin, with the "same crystalline form and biological activities as natural insulin."^{[805]}^{[806]}The project began in 1958, and is considered one of the "first proteins ever synthesized in vitro."^{[807]}**Single-mode optical fiber（单模光纤）**: Professor Huang Hongjia of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed coupling wave theory in the field of microwave theory. He led a research team that successfully developed Single-mode optical fiber in 1980.^{[808]}^{[809]}^{[810]}^{[811]}**Stem cell educator therapy（干细胞体外培育治疗）**: Chinese and US researchers have produced remarkable results for this new treatment of obtaining stem cells from human cord blood to "re-educate" misbehaving immune cells. This result was published in the open-access journal*BMC Medicine*in January 2012, and offers hope for Type 1 diabetics and potentially may also be used to treat other auto-immune diseases if the approach lives up to early promise.^{[812]}^{[813]}**Turning Urine Samples into Brain Cells（从尿液细胞中培养出神经细胞）**: This new technique of reprogramming ordinary cells present in urine into immature brain cells that can form multiple types of functioning neurons and glial cells was developed by Chinese researchers in China, and was published in the scientific journal*Nature Methods*in December 2012. Instead of using retrovirus, they used vectors which the researchers say is a breakthrough^{[814]}This does not involve embryonic stem cells which come with serious drawbacks when transplanted, such as the risk of developing tumours. This technique makes the procedure of generating Induced pluripotent stem cells far easier and non-invasive, as the cells can be obtained from a urine sample instead of a blood sample or biopsy. This research proves human excreta could be a powerful source of cells to study disease, bypassing some of the problems of using stem cells, and could be useful for research studying the cellular mechanisms of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's and for testing the effects of new drugs that are being developed to treat them.

**2. discoveries**

来源：维基百科 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_discoveries

**Arteminisinin, anti-malarial treatment**: The antimalarial drug of compound artemisinin found in*Artemisia annua*, the latter being a plant long used in traditional Chinese medicine, was discovered in 1972 by Chinese scientists in the People's Republic led by Tu Youyou and has been used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of*Plasmodium falciparum*malaria.^{[50]}^{[51]}^{[52]}Artemisinin remains the most effective treatment for malaria today and has saved millions of lives and is yielded one of the greatest drug discoveries in modern medicine.^{[53]}**Chen's theorem**: Chen's theorem states that every sufficiently large even number can be written as the sum of either two primes, or a prime and a semiprime, and was first proven by Chen Jingrun in 1966,^{[54]}with further details of the proof in 1973.^{[55]}**Chen prime**: A prime number*p*is called a**Chen prime**if*p*+ 2 is either a prime or a product of two primes (also called a semiprime). The even number 2*p*+ 2 therefore satisfies Chen's theorem.The Chen primes are named after Chen Jingrun, who proved in 1966 that there are infinitely many such primes. This result would also follow from the truth of the twin prime conjecture.^{[56]}**Cheng's eigenvalue comparison theorem**: Cheng's theorem was introduced in 1975 by Hong Kong mathematician Shiu-Yuen Cheng.^{[57]}It states in general terms that when a domain is large, the first Dirichlet eigenvalue of its Laplace–Beltrami operator is small. This general characterization is not precise, in part because the notion of "size" of the domain must also account for its curvature.^{[58]}**Chern class**: Chern classes are characteristic classes in mathematics first introduced by Shiing-Shen Chern in 1946.^{[59]}^{[a]}**Chow's moving lemma**: In algebraic geometry,**Chow's moving lemma**, named after Wei-Liang Chow, states: given algebraic cycles*Y*,*Z*on a nonsingular quasi-projective variety*X*, there is another algebraic cycle*Z'*on*X*such that*Z'*is rationally equivalent to*Z*and*Y*and*Z'*intersect properly. The lemma is one of key ingredients in developing the intersection theory, as it is used to show the uniqueness of the theory.**Culturing Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria**: Chlamydia trachomatis agent was first cultured in the yolk sacs of eggs by Chinese scientists in 1957^{[60]}**Feathered theropods**: The first feathered dinosaur outside of Avialae,*Sinosauropteryx*, meaning "Chinese reptilian wing," was discovered in the Yixian Formation by Chinese paleontologists in 1996.^{[61]}The discovery is seen as evidence that dinosaurs originated from birds, a theory proposed and supported decades earlier by paleontologists like Gerhard Heilmann and John Ostrom, but "no true dinosaur had been found exhibiting down or feathers until the Chinese specimen came to light."^{[62]}The dinosaur was covered in what are dubbed 'protofeathers' and considered to be homologous with the more advanced feathers of birds,^{[63]}although some scientists disagree with this assessment.^{[64]}**Finite element method**: In numerical analysis, the finite element method is a technique for finding approximate solutions to systems of partial differential equations. The FEM was developed in the West by Alexander Hrennikoff and Richard Courant, and independently in China by Feng Kang.**Grunwald–Wang theorem**: In algebraic number theory, the**Grunwald–Wang theorem**states that—except in some precisely defined cases—an element*x*in a number field*K*is an*n*th power in*K*if it is an*n*th power in the completion for almost all (i.e. all but finitely many) primes of*K*. For example, a rational number is a square of a rational number if it is a square of a*p*-adic number for almost all primes*p*. The Grunwald–Wang theorem is an example of a local-global principle.It was introduced by Wilhelm Grunwald (1933), but there was a mistake in this original version that was found and corrected by Shianghao Wang (1948).**Hua's identity**: In algebra,**Hua's identity**^{[65]}states that for any elements*a*,*b*in a division ring, : whenever . Replacing with gives another equivalent form of the identity: :**Hua's lemma**: In mathematics,**Hua's lemma**,^{[66]}named for Hua Loo-keng, is an estimate for exponential sums.**Heterosis in rice, three-line hybrid rice system**: A team of agricultural scientists headed by Yuan Longping applied heterosis to rice, developing the three-line hybrid rice system in 1973.^{[67]}The innovation allowed for roughly 12,000 kg (26,450 lbs) of rice to be grown per hectare (10,000 m^{2}). Hybrid rice has proven to be greatly beneficial in areas where there is little arable land, and has been adopted by several Asian and African countries. Yuan won the 2004 Wolf Prize in agriculture for his work.^{[68]}**Huang-Minglon modification**: The Huang-Minglon modification, introduced by Chinese chemist Huang Minlon,^{[69]}^{[70]}is a modification of the Wolff–Kishner reduction and involves heating the carbonyl compound, potassium hydroxide, and hydrazine hydrate together in ethylene glycol in a one-pot reaction.^{[71]}**Ky Fan norms**: The sum of the*k*largest singular values of*M*is a matrix norm, the Ky Fan*k*-norm of*M*.The first of the Ky Fan norms, the Ky Fan 1-norm is the same as the operator norm of*M*as a linear operator with respect to the Euclidean norms of*K*^{m}and*K*^{n}. In other words, the Ky Fan 1-norm is the operator norm induced by the standard*l*^{2}Euclidean inner product.**Lee–Yang theorem**: The Lee-Yang theorem in statistical mechanics was first proved for the Ising model by future Nobel laureates Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen Ning Yang in 1952. The theorem states that if partition functions of certain models in statistical field theory with ferromagnetic interactions are considered as functions of an external field, then all zeros are purely imaginary, or on the unit circle after a change of variable.^{[72]}^{[b]}**Pu's inequality**: In differential geometry,**Pu's inequality**is an inequality proved by Pao Ming Pu for the systole of an arbitrary Riemannian metric on the real projective plane RP^{2}.**Siu's semicontinuity theorem**: In complex analysis, the**Siu semicontinuity theorem**implies that the Lelong number of a closed positive current on a complex manifold is semicontinuous. More precisely, the points where the Lelong number is at least some constant form a complex subvariety. This was conjectured by Harvey & King (1972) and proved by Siu (1973, 1974).**Sun's curious identity**: In combinatorics,**Sun's curious identity**is the following identity involving binomial coefficients, first established by Zhi-Wei Sun in 2002:**Tsen rank**: A Tsen rank of a field describes conditions under which a system of polynomial equations must have a solution in the field. It was introduced by mathematician Chiungtze C. Tsen in 1936.^{[73]}**Wu's method**: Wu's method was discovered in 1978 by Chinese mathematician Wen-Tsun Wu.^{[74]}The method is an algorithm for solving multivariate polynomial equations, based on the mathematical concept of characteristic set introduced in the late 1940s by J.F. Ritt.^{[75]}**Yunnan Baiyao**^{[76]}

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