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[转载]英国1901年以来的科技发明:他山之石可以攻玉

已有 143 次阅读 2018-6-14 09:06 |系统分类:观点评述|文章来源:转载

 英国1901年以来的科技发明:他山之石可以攻玉

来源:维基百科  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_inventions_and_discoveries

Agriculture

Clock making

Communications

Computing

Criminology

Cryptography

Engineering

Household appliances

Industrial processes

Medicine

Military

Musical instruments

Photography

Science

Physics

Chemistry

Biology

  • 1953: Double-helix structure of DNA determined by Englishman Francis Crick (1906–2004)[146] and American James Watson. Crick was a pioneer in the field of molecular biology.

  • 1958: the first cloning of an animal, a frog using intact nuclei from the somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole by Sir John Gurdon.

  • 1950 onward: the pioneering of the use of Xenopus eggs to translate microinjected messenger RNA molecules by Sir John Gurdon and fellow researchers, a technique which has been widely used to identify the proteins encoded and to study their function.

  • 1960 onwards: Pioneering observation-based research into the behaviour of chimpanzees (our closest relatives in the animal kingdom) conducted by Jane Goodall (born 1934).

  • 1977: DNA sequencing by chain termination developed by Frederick Sanger (1918–2013).[147] Sanger won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry twice.

  • 1977: Discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene-splicing by Richard J. Roberts (born 1943).[148]

  • 1996: Dolly the Sheep born as a result of Nuclear transfer, a form of cloning put into practice by Ian Wilmut (born 1944) and Keith Campbell (1954–2012).

  • 2016: Scientists at the British bio-tech company Oxitec, in an attempt to stop the spread of dengue fever genetically engineer a 'sudden death' mosquito which after mating successfully with a wild female, any offspring produced will not survive to adulthood and the lethal gene is passed on from the female to any male they mate with and the cycle continues. 3,019,000 mosquitos were released on the Grand Cayman Islands and after three months 80% of the population of mosquitos in the target area had vanished.

Mathematics and statistics

Astronomy

Geology and meteorology

Scientific instruments

Sport

Transport

Locomotives

  • 1923: The Flying Scotsman built to a design by Sir Nigel Gresley (1876–1941);[215] the Flying Scotsman was in 1934 the first steam locomotive to be authenticated at reaching 100 miles per hour (160.9 km/h) in passenger service.[216]

Other railway developments

Roads

Sea

Miscellaneous





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